Web Results
Content Results
  • Metastasis

    serch.it?q=Metastasis

    Metastasis is a pathogenic agent's spread from an initial or primary site to a different or secondary site within the host's body; it is typically spoken of as such spread by a cancerous tumor. The newly pathological sites, then, are metastases (mets). It is generally distinguished from cancer invasion, which is the direct extension and penetration by cancer cells into neighboring tissues. Cancer occurs after cells are genetically altered to proliferate rapidly and indefinitely. This uncontrolled proliferation by mitosis produces a primary heterogeneic tumour. The cells which constitute the tumor eventually undergo metaplasia, followed by dysplasia then anaplasia, resulting in a malignant phenotype. This malignancy allows for invasion into the circulation, followed by invasion to a second site for tumorigenesis. Some cancer cells known as circulating tumor cells acquire the ability to penetrate the walls of lymphatic or blood vessels, after which they are able to circulate through the bloodstream to other sites and tissues in the body. This process is known (respectively) as lymphatic or hematogenous spread.

  • Metastatic breast cancer

    serch.it?q=Metastatic-breast-cancer

    Common sites of metastasis for breast cancerMetastatic breast cancer, also referred to as metastases, advanced breast cancer, secondary tumours, secondaries or stage 4 breast cancer, is a stage of breast cancer where the disease has spread to distant sites beyond the axillary lymph nodes. There is no cure for metastatic breast cancer. There is no stage after IV. It usually occurs several years after the primary breast cancer, although it is sometimes diagnosed at the same time as the primary breast cancer or, rarely, before the primary breast cancer has been diagnosed. Metastatic breast cancer cells frequently differ from the preceding primary breast cancer in properties such as receptor status. The cells have often developed resistance to several lines of previous treatment and have acquired special properties that permit them to metastasize to distant sites. Metastatic breast cancer can be treated, sometimes for many years, but it cannot be cured. Distant metastases are the cause of about 90% of deaths due to breast cancer.

  • Pre-metastatic niche

    serch.it?q=Pre-metastatic-niche

    A pre-metastatic niche is an environment in a secondary organ conducive to the metastasis of a primary tumor. Such a niche provides favorable conditions for growth, and eventually metastasis, in an otherwise foreign and hostile environment for the primary tumor cells. The discovery of the pre-metastatic niche has fostered new research regarding the potential treatment of metastases, including attempts to stop the flow of vesicles from primary tumors to pre-metastatic niches in secondary organs and different combinations of previously-employed therapies.

Map Box 1