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  • Clubfoot


    Clubfoot is a birth defect where one or both feet are rotated inwards and downwards. The affected foot, calf and leg may be smaller than the other. In about half of those affected, both feet are involved. Most cases are not associated with other problems. Without treatment, people walk on the sides of their feet, which causes problems with walking. The exact cause is usually unclear. A few cases are associated with distal arthrogryposis or myelomeningocele. If one identical twin is affected, there is a 33% chance the other one will be as well. Diagnosis may occur at birth or before birth during an ultrasound exam. Initial treatment is most often with the Ponseti method. This involves moving the foot into an improved position followed by casting, which is repeated at weekly intervals. Once the inward bending is improved, the Achilles tendon is often cut, and braces are worn until the age of four. Initially, the brace is worn nearly continuously and then just at night. In about 20% of cases, further surgery is required. Clubfoot occurs in about 1 in 1,000 newborns. The condition is less common among the Chinese and more common among the Māori. Males are affected about twice as often as females. Treatment can be carried out by a range of healthcare providers and can generally be achieved in the developing world with few resources.

  • Valgus deformity


    In orthopedics, a valgus deformity is a condition in which the bone segment distal to a joint is angled outward, that is, angled laterally, away from the body's midline. The opposite deformation, where the twist or angulation is directed medially, toward the center of the body, is called varus. Common causes of valgus knee (genu valgum or "knock-knee") in adults include arthritis of the knee and traumatic injuries.

  • Webbed toes


    Webbed toes is the common name for syndactyly affecting the feet. It is characterised by the fusion of two or more digits of the feet. This is normal in many birds, such as ducks; amphibians, such as frogs; and mammals, such as kangaroos. In humans it is considered unusual, occurring in approximately one in 2,000 to 2,500 live births. Most commonly the second and third toes are webbed or joined by skin and flexible tissue. This can reach either part way up or nearly all the way up the toe.

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