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  • Bertrand's box paradox


    Bertrand's box paradox is a paradox of elementary probability theory, first posed by Joseph Bertrand in his 1889 work Calcul des probabilités. There are three boxes: a box containing two gold coins, a box containing two silver coins, a box containing one gold coin and a silver coin.The 'paradox' is in the probability, after choosing a box at random and withdrawing one coin at random, if that happens to be a gold coin, of the next coin drawn from the same box also being a gold coin. These simple but counterintuitive puzzles are used as a standard example in teaching probability theory. Their solution illustrates some basic principles, including the Kolmogorov axioms.

  • The Indian in the Cupboard (film)


    The Indian in the Cupboard is a 1995 American family fantasy drama film directed by Frank Oz and written by Melissa Mathison, based on the children's book of the same name by Lynne Reid Banks. The story is about a boy who receives a cupboard as a gift on his ninth birthday. He later discovers that putting toy figures in the cupboard, after locking and unlocking it, brings the toys to life. The film starred Hal Scardino as Omri, Litefoot as Little Bear, Lindsay Crouse, Richard Jenkins, Rishi Bhat as Omri's friend Patrick, Steve Coogan as Tommy Atkins, and David Keith as Boone the Cowboy. It was distributed by Columbia Pictures (Non-US theatre release, TV broadcast rights and US video release) and Paramount Pictures (US theatre and Non-US video release).

  • Grinding wheel


    Grinding wheel Grinding wheels A grinding wheel is a wheel composed of an abrasive compound and used for various grinding (abrasive cutting) and abrasive machining operations. Such wheels are used in grinding machines. The wheels are generally made from a composite material consisting of coarse-particle aggregate pressed and bonded together by a cementing matrix (called the bond in grinding wheel terminology) to form a solid, circular shape. Various profiles and cross sections are available depending on the intended usage for the wheel. They may also be made from a solid steel or aluminium disc with particles bonded to the surface. Today most grinding wheels are artificial composites made with artificial aggregates, but the history of grinding wheels began with natural composite stones, such as those used for millstones. The manufacture of these wheels is a precise and tightly controlled process, due not only to the inherent safety risks of a spinning disc, but also the composition and uniformity required to prevent that disc from exploding due to the high stresses produced on rotation.

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