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  • Arterial road

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    Page Mill Road in Palo Alto, California, USA is a typical arterial road in a suburban area. This also has a bike lane. An arterial road or arterial thoroughfare is a high-capacity urban road. The primary function of an arterial road is to deliver traffic from collector roads to freeways or expressways, and between urban centres at the highest level of service possible. As such, many arteries are limited-access roads, or feature restrictions on private access. Though the design of arterial roads varies from country to country, city to city, and even within cities, they share a number of common design characteristics. For example, in many cities, arteries are arranged in concentric circles (commonly referred to as ring roads) or in a grid. Many jurisdictions also classify arterial roads as either principal (major) or minor. In traffic engineering hierarchy, an arterial road delivers traffic between collector roads and freeways. For new arterial roads, intersections are often reduced to increase traffic flow. In California, arterial roads are usually spaced every half mile, and have intersecting collector(s) and streets. Some arterial roads, characterized by a small fraction of intersections and driveways compared to most arterial roads, are also considered to be expressways in some countries and some states of the United States.

  • Road surface marking

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    Yellow line road marking Road marking machine working in Kenya, March 2012 Road marking machine working in Bahrain, December 2012Road surface marking is any kind of device or material that is used on a road surface in order to convey official information; they are commonly placed with road marking machines (or road marking equipment, pavement marking equipment). They can also be applied in other facilities used by vehicles to mark parking spaces or designate areas for other uses. Road surface markings are used on paved roadways to provide guidance and information to drivers and pedestrians. Uniformity of the markings is an important factor in minimizing confusion and uncertainty about their meaning, and efforts exist to standardize such markings across borders. However, countries and areas categorize and specify road surface markings in different ways — white lines are called white lines mechanical, non-mechanical, or temporary. They can be used to delineate traffic lanes, inform motorists and pedestrians or serve as noise generators when run across a road, or attempt to wake a sleeping driver when installed in the shoulders of a road.

  • Asphalt concrete

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    Asphalt batch mix plant A machine laying asphalt concrete, fed from a dump truckAsphalt concrete (commonly called asphalt, blacktop, or pavement in North America, and tarmac, bitumen macadam or rolled asphalt in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland) is a composite material commonly used to surface roads, parking lots, airports, as well as the core of embankment dams. It consists of mineral aggregate bound together with asphalt, laid in layers, and compacted. The process was refined and enhanced by Belgian inventor and U.S. immigrant Edward de Smedt. The terms asphalt (or asphaltic) concrete, bituminous asphalt concrete, and bituminous mixture are typically used only in engineering and construction documents, which define concrete as any composite material composed of mineral aggregate adhered with a binder. The abbreviation, AC, is sometimes used for asphalt concrete but can also denote asphalt content or asphalt cement, referring to the liquid asphalt portion of the composite material. 1.

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