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  • Velopharyngeal insufficiency


    Velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) is a disorder of structure that causes a failure of the velum (soft palate) to close against the posterior pharyngeal wall (back wall of the throat) during speech in order to close off the nose (nasal cavity) during oral speech production. This is important because speech requires sound (from the vocal folds) and airflow (from the lungs) to be directed into the oral cavity (mouth) for the production of all speech sound with the exception of nasal sounds (m, n, and ng). If complete closure does not occur during speech, this can cause hypernasality (a resonance disorder) and/or audible nasal emission during speech (a speech sound disorder). In addition, there may be inadequate airflow to produce most consonants, making them sound weak or omitted. The terms "velopharyngeal insufficiency" "velopharyngeal incompetence, "velopharyngeal inadequacy" and "velopharyngeal dysfunction" have often been used interchangeably, although they do not mean the same thing. "Velopharyngeal dysfunction" now refers to abnormality of the velopharyngeal valve, regardless of cause.

  • Lionel Logue


    Lionel George Logue, CVO (26 February 1880 – 12 April 1953) was an Australian speech and language therapist and amateur stage actor who successfully treated, among others, King George VI, who had a pronounced stammer.

  • Motor speech disorders


    Motor speech disorders are a class of speech disorders that disturb the body's natural ability to speak due to neurologic impairments. These neurologic impairments make it difficult for individuals with motor speech disorders to plan, program, control, coordinate, and execute speech productions. Disturbances to the individual's natural ability to speak vary in their etiology based on the integrity and integration of cognitive, neuromuscular, and musculoskeletal activities. Speaking is an act dependent on thought and timed execution of airflow and oral motor / oral placement of the lips, tongue, and jaw that can be disrupted by weakness in oral musculature (dysarthria) or an inability to execute the motor movements needed for specific speech sound production (apraxia of speech or developmental verbal dyspraxia). Such deficits can be related to pathology of the nervous system (central and /or peripheral systems involved in motor planning) that affect the timing of respiration, phonation, prosody, and articulation in isolation or in conjunction.

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