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  • Tungiasis

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    Tungiasis (also known as nigua, pio and bicho de pie, or pique or sand flea disease) is an inflammatory skin disease caused by infection with the female ectoparasitic Tunga penetrans (also known as chigoe flea, jigger, nigua or sand flea), found in the tropical parts of Africa, the Caribbean, Central and South America, and India. Tunga penetrans is the smallest known flea, measuring 1 mm across. It is also known in Latin America as the nigua and bicho de pie (Spanish) or bicho de pé (Portuguese), literally "foot bug". Tunga penetrans is a member of the genus Tunga, which comprises 13 species. Tungiasis causes skin inflammation, severe pain, itching, and a lesion at the site of infection that is characterized by a black dot at the center of a swollen red lesion, surrounded by what looks like a white halo. Desquamation of the skin is always seen, especially after the flea expands during hypertrophy. As of 2009, tungiasis is present worldwide in 88 countries with varying degrees of incidence.

  • Flea allergy dermatitis

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    Dog with flea allergy dermatitis and secondary folliculitisFlea allergy dermatitis, FAD, is an eczematous itchy skin disease of dogs and cats. For both of these domestic species, flea allergy dermatitis is the most common cause of skin disease. Affected animals develop allergic reactions to chemicals in flea saliva. Symptoms of this reaction include erythema (redness), papules (bumps), pustules (pus-filled bumps), and crusts (scabs). If severe, hair loss will occur in the affected area. Dogs with flea allergy dermatitis often show hair loss and eczematous skin rash on the lower back, upper tail, neck, and down the back of the legs. Cats with flea allergy dermatitis may develop a variety of skin problems, including feline eosinophilic granuloma, miliary dermatitis, or self-inflicted alopecia from excessive grooming.

  • Human flea

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    The human flea (Pulex irritans) – once also called the house flea – is a cosmopolitan flea species that has, in spite of the common name, a wide host spectrum. It is one of six species in the genus Pulex; the other five are all confined to the Nearctic and Neotropical regions. The species is thought to have originated in South America, where its original host may have been the guinea pig or peccary.

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