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  • Salt

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    Salt deposits beside the Dead Sea Halite (rock salt) from the Wieliczka salt mine, Małopolskie, PolandSalt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite. Salt is present in vast quantities in seawater, where it is the main mineral constituent. The open ocean has about of solids per litre, a salinity of 3.5%. Salt is essential for life in general, and saltiness is one of the basic human tastes. Salt is one of the oldest and most ubiquitous food seasonings, and salting is an important method of food preservation. Some of the earliest evidence of salt processing dates to around 6,000 BC, when people living in the area of present-day Romania boiled spring water to extract salts; a salt-works in China dates to approximately the same period. Salt was also prized by the ancient Hebrews, the Greeks, the Romans, the Byzantines, the Hittites, Egyptians, and the Indians.

  • Losartan

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    Losartan, sold under the trade name Cozaar among others, is a medication mainly used to treat high blood pressure. Other uses include for diabetic kidney disease, heart failure, and left ventricular enlargement. It is taken by mouth. It may be used together with other blood pressure medication. Up to six weeks may be required for the full effects to occur. Common side effects include muscle cramps, stuffy nose, cough, and high blood potassium. Severe side effects may include angioedema, low blood pressure, and kidney problems. Use during pregnancy may result in harm to the baby. Use is not recommended during breastfeeding. It is in the angiotensin II receptor antagonist family of medication and works by blocking angiotensin II. Losartan was approved for medical use in the United States in 1995. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. It is available as a generic medication. The wholesale cost in the developing world is about US$0.28–3.45 per month as of 2015. In the United States, as of 2017, the wholesale cost of a typical dose is $1.13 per month. In 2016 it was the 9th most prescribed medication in the United States with more than 49 million prescriptions. A version combined with hydrochlorothiazide is available.

  • Pulmonary hypertension

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    Pulmonary hypertension (PH or PHTN) is a condition of increased blood pressure within the arteries of the lungs. Symptoms include shortness of breath, syncope, tiredness, chest pain, swelling of the legs, and a fast heartbeat. The condition may make it difficult to exercise. Onset is typically gradual. The cause is often unknown. Risk factors include a family history, prior blood clots in the lungs, HIV/AIDS, sickle cell disease, cocaine use, COPD, sleep apnea, living at high altitudes, and problems with the mitral valve. The underlying mechanism typically involves inflammation of the arteries in the lungs. Diagnosis involves first ruling out other potential causes. There is no cure. Treatment depends on the type of disease. A number of supportive measures such as oxygen therapy, diuretics, and medications to inhibit clotting may be used. Medications specifically for the condition include epoprostenol, treprostinil, iloprost, bosentan, ambrisentan, macitentan, and sildenafil. A lung transplant may be an option in certain cases. While the exact frequency of the condition is unknown, it is estimated that about 1,000 new cases occur a year in the United States. Females are more often affected than males. Onset is typically between 20 and 60 years of age. It was first identified by Ernst von Romberg in 1891.

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