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  • Collagen

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    Tropocollagen molecule: three left-handed procollagens (red, green, blue) join to form a right-handed triple helical tropocollagen.Collagen is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in the body. As the main component of connective tissue, it is the most abundant protein in mammals, making 25% to 35% of the whole-body protein content. Collagen consists of amino acids wound together to form triple-helices l of elongated fibrils. It is, mostly, found in fibrous tissues such as tendons, ligaments, and skin. Depending upon the degree of mineralization, collagen tissues may be rigid (bone), compliant (tendon), or have a gradient from rigid to compliant (cartilage). It is also abundant in corneas, blood vessels, the gut, intervertebral discs, and the dentin in teeth. In muscle tissue, it serves as a major component of the endomysium. Collagen constitutes one to two percent of muscle tissue and accounts for 6% of the weight of strong, tendinous, muscles. The fibroblast is the most common cell that creates collagen. Gelatin, which is used in food and industry, is collagen that has been, irreversibly, hydrolyzed. Collagen, also, has many medical uses in treating complications of the bones and skin. The name collagen comes from the Greek κόλλα (kólla), meaning "glue", and suffix -γέν, -gen, denoting "producing". This refers to the compound's early use in the process of boiling the skin and tendons of horses and other animals to obtain glue.

  • Gelatin

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    Sheet (or leaf) gelatin for cookingGelatin or gelatine (from meaning "stiff" or "frozen") is a translucent, colorless, brittle (when dry), flavorless food ingredient that is derived from collagen obtained from various animal body parts. It is also referred to as hydrolyzed collagen, collagen hydrolysate, gelatine hydrolysate, hydrolyzed gelatine, and collagen peptides. It is commonly used as a gelling agent in food, medications, drug and vitamin capsules, photographic films and papers, and cosmetics. Substances containing gelatin or functioning in a similar way are called "gelatinous". Gelatin is an irreversibly hydrolyzed form of collagen, wherein the hydrolysis results in the reduction of protein fibrils into smaller peptides, which will have broad molecular weight ranges associated with physical and chemical methods of denaturation, based on the process of hydrolysis. It is found in most gummy candy, as well as other products such as marshmallows, gelatin desserts, and some ice creams, dips, and yogurts. Gelatin for recipe use comes in the form of powder, granules, or sheets. Instant types can be added to the food as they are; others need to be soaked in water beforehand.

  • Dietary supplement

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    As a pill As a capsule As a tablet As a softgel capsule used for fish oil or large amounts of vitamin E shake and bottled powder Production of cod liver oil, one of the first dietary supplement products manufactured in the 18th century A dietary supplement is a manufactured product intended to supplement the diet when taken by mouth as a pill, capsule, tablet, or liquid. A supplement can provide nutrients either extracted from food sources or synthetic, individually or in combination, in order to increase the quantity of their consumption. The class of nutrient compounds includes vitamins, minerals, fiber, fatty acids and amino acids. Dietary supplements can also contain substances that have not been confirmed as being essential to life, but are marketed as having a beneficial biological effect, such as plant pigments or polyphenols. Animals can also be a source of supplement ingredients, as for example collagen from chickens or fish. These are also sold individually and in combination, and may be combined with nutrient ingredients. In the United States and Canada, dietary supplements are considered a subset of foods, and are regulated accordingly.

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