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  • Iodine deficiency

    serch.it?q=Iodine-deficiency

    Iodine deficiency is a lack of the trace element iodine, an essential nutrient in the diet. It may result in a goiter, sometimes as an endemic goiter as well as cretinism due to untreated congenital hypothyroidism, which results in developmental delays and other health problems. Iodine deficiency is an important public health issue as it is a preventable cause of intellectual disability.

  • Levothyroxine

    serch.it?q=Levothyroxine

    Levothyroxine, also known as -thyroxine, is a manufactured form of the thyroid hormone, thyroxine (T4). It is used to treat thyroid hormone deficiency including the severe form known as myxedema coma. It may also be used to treat and prevent certain types of thyroid tumors. It is not indicated for weight loss. Levothyroxine is taken by mouth or given by injection into a vein. Maximum effect from a specific dose can take up to six weeks to occur. Side effects from excessive doses include weight loss, trouble tolerating heat, sweating, anxiety, trouble sleeping, tremor, and fast heart rate. Use is not recommended in people who have had a recent heart attack. Use during pregnancy has been found to be safe. It is recommended that dosing be based on regular measurements of TSH and T4 levels in the blood. Much of the effect of levothyroxine is following its conversion to triiodothyronine (T3). Levothyroxine was first made in 1927. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. Levothyroxine is available as a generic medication. The wholesale cost in the developing world is about 0.58 to 12.28 USD a month. In the United States a typical month of treatment is less than 25 USD. Levothyroxine was the most commonly prescribed medication in the US as of 2016 with more than 114 million prescriptions.

  • Hypothyroidism

    serch.it?q=Hypothyroidism

    Hypothyroidism, also called underactive thyroid or low thyroid, is a disorder of the endocrine system in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone. It can cause a number of symptoms, such as poor ability to tolerate cold, a feeling of tiredness, constipation, depression, and weight gain. Occasionally there may be swelling of the front part of the neck due to goiter. Untreated hypothyroidism during pregnancy can lead to delays in growth and intellectual development in the baby or cretinism. Worldwide, too little iodine in the diet is the most common cause of hypothyroidism. In countries with enough iodine in the diet, the most common cause of hypothyroidism is the autoimmune condition Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Less common causes include: previous treatment with radioactive iodine, injury to the hypothalamus or the anterior pituitary gland, certain medications, a lack of a functioning thyroid at birth, or previous thyroid surgery. The diagnosis of hypothyroidism, when suspected, can be confirmed with blood tests measuring thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroxine levels. Salt iodization has prevented hypothyroidism in many populations.

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