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  • Cuboid syndrome

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    Cuboid syndrome or cuboid subluxation describes a condition that results from subtle injury to the calcaneocuboid joint and ligaments in the vicinity of the cuboid bone, one of seven tarsal bones of the human foot. This condition often manifests in the form of lateral (little toe side) foot pain and sometimes general foot weakness. Cuboid syndrome, which is relatively common but not well defined or recognized, is known by many other names, including "lateral plantar neuritis, cuboid fault syndrome, peroneal cuboid syndrome, dropped cuboid, locked cuboid and subluxed cuboid.

  • Jones fracture

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    A Jones fracture is a break between the base and middle part of the fifth metatarsal of the foot. It results in pain near the midportion of the foot on the outside. There may also be bruising and difficulty walking. Onset is generally sudden. The fracture typically occurs when the toes are pointed and the foot bends inwards. This movement may occur when changing direction while the heel is off the ground such in dancing, tennis, or basketball. Diagnosis is generally suspected based on symptoms and confirmed with X-rays. Initial treatment is typically in a cast, without any walking on it, for at least six weeks. If after this period of time healing has not occurred a further six weeks of casting may be recommended. Due to poor blood supply in this area, the break sometimes does not heal and surgery is required. In athletes or if the pieces of bone are separated surgery may be considered sooner. The fracture was first described in 1902 by orthopedic surgeon Robert Jones who sustained the injury while dancing.

  • Plantar fasciitis

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    Plantar fasciitis is a disorder of the connective tissue which supports the arch of the foot. It results in pain in the heel and bottom of the foot that is usually most severe with the first steps of the day or following a period of rest. Pain is also frequently brought on by bending the foot and toes up towards the shin. The pain typically comes on gradually, and it affects both feet in about one third of cases. The causes of plantar fasciitis are not entirely clear. Risk factors include overuse such as from long periods of standing, an increase in exercise, and obesity. It is also associated with inward rolling of the foot, a tight Achilles tendon, and a lifestyle that involves little exercise. While heel spurs are frequently found it is unclear if they have a role in causing the condition. Plantar fasciitis is a disorder of the insertion site of the ligament on the bone characterized by micro tears, breakdown of collagen, and scarring. Since inflammation plays either a lesser or no role, a review proposed it be renamed plantar fasciosis. The diagnosis is typically based on signs and symptoms; ultrasound is sometimes useful. Other conditions with similar symptoms include osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, heel pad syndrome, and reactive arthritis. Most cases of plantar fasciitis resolve with time and conservative methods of treatment. For the first few weeks, those affected are usually advised to rest, change their activities, take pain medications, and stretch. If this is not sufficient, physiotherapy, orthotics, splinting, or steroid injections may be options. If these measures are not effective, extracorporeal shockwave therapy or surgery may be tried. Between 4% and 7% of the general population has heel pain at any given time: about 80% of these are due to plantar fasciitis. Approximately 10% of people have the disorder at some point during their life. It becomes more common with age. It is unclear if one sex is more affected than the other.

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