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  • Hip dislocation


    A hip dislocation a disruption of the joint between the femur and pelvis. Specifically it is when the ball–shaped head of the femur comes out of the cup–shaped acetabulum of the pelvis. Symptoms typically include pain and an inability move the hip. Complications may include avascular necrosis of the hip, injury to the sciatic nerve, or arthritis. Dislocations are typically due to significant trauma such as a motor vehicle collision or fall from height. Often there are also other associated injuries. Diagnosis is generally confirmed by plain X-rays. Hip dislocations can also occur follow a hip replacement or from a developmental abnormality known as hip dysplasia. Efforts to prevent the condition include wearing a seat-belt. Emergency treatment generally follows advanced trauma life support. This is generally followed by reduction of the hip carried out under procedural sedation. A CT scan is recommended following reduction to rule out complications. Surgery is required if the joint cannot be reduced otherwise. Often a few months are required for healing to occur. Hip dislocations are uncommon. Males are affected more often than females. Traumatic dislocations occurs most commonly in those 16- to 40-year old. The condition was first described in the medical press in the early 1800s.

  • Child bone fracture


    A child bone fracture or a pediatric fracture is a medical condition in which a bone of a child (a person younger than the age of 18) is cracked or broken. About 15% of all injuries in children are fracture injuries. Bone fractures in children are different from adult bone fractures because a child’s bones are still growing. Also, more consideration needs to be taken when a child fractures a bone since it will affect the child in his or her growth.

  • Avulsion fracture


    An avulsion fracture is a bone fracture which occurs when a fragment of bone tears away from the main mass of bone as a result of physical trauma. This can occur at the ligament due to the application forces external to the body (such as a fall or pull) or at the tendon due to a muscular contraction that is stronger than the forces holding the bone together. Generally muscular avulsion is prevented due to the neurological limitations placed on muscle contractions. Highly trained athletes can overcome this neurological inhibition of strength and produce a much greater force output capable of breaking or avulsing a bone.

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