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  • Universal suffrage

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    The concept of universal suffrage, also known as general suffrage or common suffrage, consists of the right to vote of all adult citizens, regardless of property ownership, income, race, or ethnicity, subject only to minor exceptions. In its original 19th-century usage by political reformers, universal suffrage was understood to mean only universal male suffrage; the vote was extended to women later, during the women's suffrage movement. There are variations among countries in terms of specifics of the right to vote; the minimum age is usually between 18 and 25 years (see age of majority) and "the insane, certain classes of convicted criminals, and those punished for certain electoral offenses" sometimes lack the right to vote. In the United States, the term "suffrage" is often associated specifically with women's suffrage; a movement to extend the franchise to women began in the mid-nineteenth century and culminated in the 1920, when the United States ratified the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, guaranteeing the right of women to vote. The first female MPs in the world were elected in Finland in 1907.

  • Franchise fee

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    A franchise fee is a fee that a person pays to operate a franchise branch of a larger company and enjoy the profits therefrom.

  • Franchising

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    A McDonald's franchise in Moncton, New Brunswick, CanadaFranchising is based on a marketing concept which can be adopted by an organization as a strategy for business expansion. Where implemented, a franchiser licenses its know-how, procedures, intellectual property, use of its business model, brand, and rights to sell its branded products and services to a franchisee. In return the franchisee pays certain fees and agrees to comply with certain obligations, typically set out in a Franchise Agreement. The word "franchise" is of Anglo-French derivation—from franc, meaning free—and is used both as a noun and as a (transitive) verb. For the franchiser, use of a franchise system is an alternative business growth strategy, compared to expansion through corporate owned outlets or "chain stores". Adopting a franchise system business growth strategy for the sale and distribution of goods and services minimizes the franchiser's capital investment and liability risk. As with any business venture, franchising is not immune to risk. But if undertaken in the right way, franchising can be a vehicle of success for both the franchisor and franchisee.

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