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  • Muffle furnace

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    An Automatic Oil Muffle Furnace, circa 1910. Petroleum is contained in tank A, and is kept under pressure by pumping at intervals with the wooden handle, so that when the valve B is opened, the oil is vaporized by passing through a heating coil at the furnace entrance, and when ignited burns fiercely as a gas flame. This passes into the furnace through the two holes, C, C, and plays under and up around the muffle D, standing on a fireclay slab. The doorway is closed by two fireclay blocks at E. High temperature muffle-furnace, maximum temperature is . A muffle furnace (sometimes retort furnace in historical usage) is a furnace in which the subject material is isolated from the fuel and all of the products of combustion, including gases and flying ash. After the development of high-temperature electric heating elements and widespread electrification in developed countries, new muffle furnaces quickly moved to electric designs. Today, a muffle furnace is (usually) a front-loading box-type oven or kiln for high-temperature applications such as fusing glass, creating enamel coatings, ceramics and soldering and brazing articles.

  • Moira Furnace

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    Ashby de la Zouch Canal in 1982, before restoration Ashby de la Zouch Canal after restoration iron 'pigs' were produced The front of the furnace, with the casting arch and hearth at the bottom The hearth of the furnace, with the remains of the last failed firing showing as the yellowish mass at the bottom. Of interest are the hand impressions cast into the uprights of the hearth. A hole has been made to allow a view of the now emptied inside of the furnace The chimney on top of the furnace. The new outer wall has a gap for viewing the original inner wall (badly damaged by overheating) and down into the furnaceMoira Furnace is a nineteenth-century iron-making blast furnace located in Moira, Leicestershire, on the banks of the Ashby-de-la-Zouch Canal. Built by the Earl of Moira in 1804, the building has been preserved by North West Leicestershire District Council as a museum featuring lime kilns and craft workshops. It is a most important industrial monument, since it is remarkably well-preserved, and dates from a formative period of the Industrial Revolution.

  • Kiln

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    Charcoal kilns, California Indian brick kiln Hops kiln Farnham Pottery, Wrecclesham, Surrey with the preserved bottle kiln on the right of photo Catenary arch kiln under construction An empty, intermittent kiln. This specific example is a "car kiln"; the base is on wheels and has been rolled out of the kiln—this facilitates loading and unloading the kiln A kiln ( or , originally pronounced "kill", with the "n" silent) is a thermally insulated chamber, a type of oven, that produces temperatures sufficient to complete some process, such as hardening, drying, or chemical changes. Kilns have been used for millennia to turn objects made from clay into pottery, tiles and bricks. Various industries use rotary kilns for pyroprocessing—to calcinate ores, to calcinate limestone to lime for cement, and to transform many other materials.

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