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  • Chest pain

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    Chest pain is pain in any region of the chest. Chest pain may be a symptom of a number of serious disorders and is, in general, considered a medical emergency. Chest pain can be differentiated into heart-related and non heart related chest pain. Cardiac chest pain is called angina pectoris. Some causes of noncardiac chest pain include gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, or lung issues. Even though chest pain may not be related to a heart problem, noncardiac chest pain can still be due to significant disease. Chest pain can present with different types of pain and associated symptoms which may vary with a person's age, sex, and previous medical conditions. Determining the cause of chest pain is through review of a person's medical history, a physical exam, and other medical tests. Management of chest pain is based on the underlying cause. Chest pain is a common presenting problem: In the United States, an estimated 6-8 million people per year present to the emergency department with chest pain. An estimated 50-70% of patients presenting with chest pain in the emergency department will be placed in an observation unit or admitted to the hospital. 2 million people are admitted annually for workup of acute coronary syndrome. Approximately 8 billion dollars are used annually to evaluate complaints of chest pain. Children with chest pain account for 0.3% to 0.6% of pediatric emergency department visits.

  • Streptococcal pharyngitis

    serch.it?q=Streptococcal-pharyngitis

    Streptococcal pharyngitis, also known as strep throat, is an infection of the back of the throat including the tonsils caused by group A streptococcus (GAS). Common symptoms include fever, sore throat, red tonsils, and enlarged lymph nodes in the neck. A headache, and nausea or vomiting may also occur. Some develop a sandpaper-like rash which is known as scarlet fever. Symptoms typically begin one to three days after exposure and last seven to ten days. Strep throat is spread by respiratory droplets from an infected person. It may be spread directly or by touching something that has droplets on it and then touching the mouth, nose, or eyes. Some people may carry the bacteria without symptoms. It may also be spread by skin infected with group A strep. The diagnosis is made based on the results of a rapid antigen detection test or throat culture in those who have symptoms. Prevention is by washing hands and not sharing eating utensils. There is no vaccine for the disease. Treatment with antibiotics is only recommended in those with a confirmed diagnosis. Those infected should stay away from other people for at least 24 hours after starting treatment. Pain can be treated with paracetamol (acetaminophen) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) such as ibuprofen. Strep throat is a common bacterial infection in children. It is the cause of 15–40% of sore throats among children and 5–15% among adults. Cases are more common in late winter and early spring. Potential complications include rheumatic fever and peritonsillar abscess.

  • Flatulence

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    Flatulence is defined in the medical literature as "flatus expelled through the anus" or the "quality or state of being flatulent", which is defined in turn as "marked by or affected with gases generated in the intestine or stomach; likely to cause digestive flatulence". The root of these words is from the Latin flatus – "a blowing, a breaking wind". Flatus is also the medical word for gas generated in the stomach or bowels. Despite these standard definitions, a proportion of intestinal gas may be swallowed environmental air, and hence flatus is not totally generated in the stomach or bowels. The scientific study of this area of medicine is termed flatology. It is normal for humans to pass flatus through the rectum, although the volume and frequency may vary greatly between individuals. It is also normal for intestinal gas passed through the rectum to have a characteristic feculent smell, although this too may vary in concentration. Flatus is brought to the rectum by specialised contractions of the muscles in the intestines and colon.

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