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  • Refrigerator


    Food in a refrigerator with its door open A side-by-side refrigerator-freezer with an icemaker A refrigerator (colloquially fridge) is a popular household appliance that consists of a thermally insulated compartment and a heat pump (mechanical, electronic or chemical) that transfers heat from the inside of the fridge to its external environment so that the inside of the fridge is cooled to a temperature below the ambient temperature of the room. Refrigeration is an essential food storage technique in developed countries. The lower temperature lowers the reproduction rate of bacteria, so the refrigerator reduces the rate of spoilage. A refrigerator maintains a temperature a few degrees above the freezing point of water. Optimum temperature range for perishable food storage is . A similar device that maintains a temperature below the freezing point of water is called a freezer. The refrigerator replaced the icebox, which had been a common household appliance for almost a century and a half. The first cooling systems for food involved using ice. Artificial refrigeration began in the mid-1750s, and developed in the early 1800s.

  • Instant hot water dispenser


    Hot water dispenser at Lanzhou Bus Station, China, providing free boiling water to make a cup of tea or a bowl of instant noodles An instant hot water dispenser or boiling water tap is an appliance that dispenses water at about (near-boiling). There are hot-only and hot and cool water models, and the water may be filtered as well as heated. Instant hot water dispensers became popular in the 1970s. Instant hot water dispensers are very similar to portable shower devices; the latter is fitted with a heating element and quickly heats up water, once a switch has been activated.

  • Auto-defrost


    Auto-defrost, automatic defrost or self-defrosting is a technique which regularly defrosts the evaporator in a refrigerator or freezer. Appliances using this technique are often called frost free, frostless or no-frost.

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