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  • BRAT diet

    serch.it?q=BRAT-diet

    The BRAT diet is a diet that has been recommended for people with vomiting, diarrhea or gastroenteritis. Evidence, however, does not support a benefit. It is no longer generally recommended as it is unnecessarily restrictive. An acronym, BRAT is a mnemonic for bananas, rice, apple sauce, and toast, the staples of the diet. It is recommended that all people, regardless of age, drink plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration, along with oral rehydration solutions to replace the depleted electrolytes to avoid salt imbalance. Severe, untreated salt imbalance can result in "extreme weakness, confusion, coma, or death." The diet was first discussed in 1926.

  • CRAM diet

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    The CRAM diet (cereal, rice, applesauce, and milk) is a short term dietary treatment for diarrhea and gastroenteritis. The CRAM diet has more complete protein and fat content than the BRAT diet.

  • Oral rehydration therapy

    serch.it?q=Oral-rehydration-therapy

    Oral rehydration therapy (ORT) is a type of fluid replacement used to prevent and treat dehydration, especially that due to diarrhea. It involves drinking water with modest amounts of sugar and salts, specifically sodium and potassium. Oral rehydration therapy can also be given by a nasogastric tube. Therapy should routinely include the use of zinc supplements. Use of oral rehydration therapy decreases the risk of death from diarrhea by about 93%. Side effects may include vomiting, high blood sodium, or high blood potassium. If vomiting occurs, it is recommended that use be paused for 10 minutes and then gradually restarted. The recommended formulation includes sodium chloride, sodium citrate, potassium chloride, and glucose. Glucose may be replaced by sucrose and sodium citrate may be replaced by sodium bicarbonate, if not available. It works as glucose increases the uptake of sodium and thus water by the intestines. A number of other formulations are also available including versions that can be made at home. However, the use of homemade solutions has not been well studied. Oral rehydration therapy was developed in the 1940s, but did not come into common use until the 1970s. Oral rehydration solution is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. The wholesale cost in the developing world of a package to mix with a liter of water is 0.03 to US$0.20. Globally as of 2015 oral rehydration therapy is used by 41% of children with diarrhea. This use has played an important role in reducing the number of deaths in children under the age of five.

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