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  • Gross combined weight rating


    The gross combined weight rating or gross combination weight rating (GCWR), also referred to as the gross combination mass (GCM), gross train weight (GTW), or maximum authorised mass (MAM), is the maximum allowable combined mass of a road vehicle, the passengers and cargo in the tow vehicle, plus the mass of the trailer and cargo in the trailer. This rating is set by the vehicle manufacturer. The GCWR is a function of the torque output of the engine, the capacity and ratios of the transmission, the capacity of the driving axles and tires, the capacity of the radiator, and the ability of the chassis to withstand that powertrain torque. GCWR primarily includes the powertrain's capabilities. Any of the powertrain's components, or combinations of, may create the weakest link in the powertrain. Mechanically, the differential gear ratio is not necessarily a weak link, but rather a ratio of power reduction or increase to the wheels depending on the ratio. A differential ratio of 3.42:1 will cause the engine and transmission to work harder than if the ratio was 4.10:1 with the same amount of weight hauled or towed.

  • Traffic light


    An LED traffic light in Portsmouth, England A traffic light for pedestrians in Switzerland A traffic light in Jakarta, Indonesia with its timerTraffic lights, also known as traffic signals, traffic lamps, traffic semaphore, signal lights, stop lights, robots (in South Africa and most of Africa), and traffic control signals (in technical parlance), are signalling devices positioned at road intersections, pedestrian crossings, and other locations to control flows of traffic. The world's first traffic light was short lived. It was a manually operated gas-lit signal installed in London in December 1868. It exploded less than a month after it was implemented, injuring its policeman operator. Traffic control started to seem necessary in the late 1890s and Earnest Sirrine from Chicago patented the first automated traffic control system in 1910. It used the words "STOP" and "PROCEED", although neither word lit up. Traffic lights alternate the right of way accorded to users by displaying lights or LEDS of a standard colour (red, amber (yellow), and green) following a universal colour code.

  • Archive 2011


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