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  • Dihydrocodeine

    serch.it?q=Dihydrocodeine

    Dihydrocodeine is a semi-synthetic opioid analgesic prescribed for pain or severe dyspnea, or as an antitussive, either alone or compounded with paracetamol (as in co-dydramol) or aspirin. It was developed in Germany in 1908 and first marketed in 1911. Commonly available as tablets, solutions, elixirs, and other oral forms, dihydrocodeine is also available in some countries as an injectable solution for deep subcutaneous and intra-muscular administration. As with codeine, intravenous administration should be avoided, as it could result in anaphylaxis and life-threatening pulmonary edema. In the past, dihydrocodeine suppositories were used. Dihydrocodeine is available in suppository form on prescription. Dihydrocodeine is used as an alternative or adjunct to codeine for the aforementioned indications. It is available as the following salts, in approximate descending order of frequency of use: bitartrate, phosphate, hydrochloride, tartrate, hydroiodide, methyliodide, hydrobromide, sulfate, and thiocyanate. The salt to free base conversion factors are 0.67 for the bitartrate, 0.73 for the phosphate, and 0.89 for the hydrochloride. Dihydrocodeine was developed during the intense international search for more effective antitussives, especially to help reduce the airborne spread of tuberculosis, pertussis, pneumonia, and similar diseases, in the years from c.a. 1895 to 1915. It is similar in chemical structure to codeine. Dihydrocodeine is twice as strong as codeine. Although dihydrocodeine does have extremely active metabolites, in the form of dihydromorphine and dihydromorphine-6-glucuronide (one hundred times more potent), these metabolites are produced in such small amounts that they do not have clinically significant effects. Dihydrocodeine is also the original member and chemical base of a number of similar semi-synthetic opioids such as acetyldihydrocodeine, dihydrocodeinone enol acetate, dihydroisocodeine, nicocodeine, and nicodicodeine.

  • Acetylcysteine

    serch.it?q=Acetylcysteine

    Acetylcysteine, also known as N-acetylcysteine (NAC), is a medication that is used to treat paracetamol (acetaminophen) overdose, and to loosen thick mucus in individuals with cystic fibrosis or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It can be taken intravenously, by mouth, or inhaled as a mist. Some people use it as a dietary supplement. Common side effects include nausea and vomiting when taken by mouth. The skin may occasionally become red and itchy with either form. A non-immune type of anaphylaxis may also occur. It appears to be safe in pregnancy. For paracetamol overdose, it works by increasing the level of glutathione, an antioxidant that can neutralise the toxic breakdown products of paracetamol. When inhaled, it acts as a mucolytic by decreasing the thickness of mucus. Acetylcysteine was initially patented in 1960 and licensed for use in 1968. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. It is available as a generic medication and is inexpensive.

  • Zopiclone

    serch.it?q=Zopiclone

    Zopiclone (brand names Imovane, Zimovane, and Dopareel) is a nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic agent used in the treatment of insomnia. Zopiclone is molecularly distinct from benzodiazepine drugs and is classed as a cyclopyrrolone. However, zopiclone increases the normal transmission of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid in the central nervous system, via modulating benzodiazepine receptors in the same way that benzodiazepine drugs do. As zopiclone is sedating, it is marketed as a sleeping pill. It works by causing a depression or tranquilization of the central nervous system. After prolonged use, the body can become accustomed to the effects of zopiclone. When the dose is then reduced or the drug is abruptly stopped, withdrawal symptoms may result. These can include a range of symptoms similar to those of benzodiazepine withdrawal. Although withdrawal symptoms from therapeutic doses of zopiclone and its isomers (i.e. eszopiclone) do not typically present with convulsions and are therefore not considered life-threatening, patients may experience such significant agitation or anxiety that they seek emergency medical attention. In the United States, zopiclone is not commercially available, although its active stereoisomer, eszopiclone, is sold under the name Lunesta. Zopiclone is a controlled substance in the United States, Japan, Brazil, and some European countries, and may be illegal to possess without a prescription. However, it is readily available in other countries where it is marketed under the brand name Imovane, and is not a controlled substance in its available 10 mg, 7.5 mg, 5 mg, and 3.75 mg oral tablet formulations. Zopiclone is known colloquially as a "Z-drug". Other Z-drugs include zaleplon (Sonata) and zolpidem (Ambien and AmbienCR) and were initially thought to be less addictive or habit-forming than benzodiazepines. However, this appraisal has shifted somewhat in the last few years as cases of addiction and habituation have been presented. Zopiclone is recommended to be taken on a short-term basis, usually a week or less. Daily or continuous use of the drug is not usually advised, and caution must be taken when the compound is used in conjunction with antidepressants, sedatives or other drugs affecting the central nervous system.

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