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  • Hard disk drive failure

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    A head crash, one type of disk failure A hard disk drive failure occurs when a hard disk drive malfunctions and the stored information cannot be accessed with a properly configured computer. A hard disk failure may occur in the course of normal operation, or due to an external factor such as exposure to fire or water or high magnetic fields, or suffering a sharp impact or environmental contamination, which can lead to a head crash. Hard drives may also be rendered inoperable through data corruption, disruption or destruction of the hard drive's master boot record, or through malware deliberately destroying the disk's contents.

  • S.M.A.R.T.

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    S.M.A.R.T. (Self-Monitoring, Analysis and Reporting Technology; often written as SMART) is a monitoring system included in computer hard disk drives (HDDs), solid-state drives (SSDs), and eMMC drives. Its primary function is to detect and report various indicators of drive reliability with the intent of anticipating imminent hardware failures. When S.M.A.R.T. data indicates a possible imminent drive failure, software running on the host system may notify the user so preventative action can be taken to prevent data loss, and the failing drive can be replaced and data integrity maintained.

  • Solid-state drive

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    A PCI-attached IO Accelerator SSD An mSATA SSD with an external enclosure 512GB Samsung 960 PRO NVMe M.2 SSD A solid-state drive (SSD) is a solid-state storage device that uses integrated circuit assemblies as memory to store data persistently. It is also sometimes called solid-state disk, although SSDs do not have physical disks. SSDs may use traditional hard disk drive (HDD) form-factors, protocols and file systems such as SATA and SAS, and NTFS or FAT32 greatly simplifying usage of SSDs in computers, or Form factors, file systems and interfaces designed for SSDs, like mSATA, m.2, u.2, NVMe, Ruler SSD, PCIe and APFS or F2FS, often greatly improving performance and removing unnecessary features like defragmentation which can improve performance on HDDs but reduce the lifespan of SSDs. Following the initial acceptance of SSDs with HDD interfaces, new form factors such as the M.2 form factor, and new I/O protocols such as NVM Express have been developed to address specific requirements of the flash memory technology used in SSDs. SSDs have no moving mechanical components.

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