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  • Water spot

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    A water spot on a ceiling, caused by rain water leaking through a roof. A water spot is an area of dried mineral deposits left on a surface after being allowed to air dry. Water quality, specifically the amount and type of minerals in the local water supply as measured by the total suspended solids or TSS test and other mineral levels such as sodium level, has a big effect on how severe water spots can be, for example on an automobile or dishes. Water spots can be avoided by drying after washing using a "shammy" cloth or towel for a car and a good drying cycle in a dishwasher, or by manual drying or good drainage after manually washing dishes. For permeable materials, such as a drywall ceiling, water spots or stains are permanent indicators of water damage and previous leaks.

  • Clean-in-place

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    A clean-in-place unit on display at the World of Coca-Cola in AtlantaClean-in-place (CIP) is a method of cleaning the interior surfaces of pipes, vessels, process equipment, filters and associated fittings, without disassembly. Up to the 1950s, closed systems were disassembled and cleaned manually. The advent of CIP was a boon to industries that needed frequent internal cleaning of their processes. Industries that rely heavily on CIP are those requiring high levels of hygiene, and include: dairy, beverage, brewing, processed foods, pharmaceutical, and cosmetics. The benefit to industries that use CIP is that the cleaning is faster, less labor-intensive and more repeatable, and poses less of a chemical exposure risk. CIP started as a manual practice involving a balance tank, centrifugal pump, and connection to the system being cleaned. Since the 1950s, CIP has evolved to include fully automated systems with programmable logic controllers, multiple balance tanks, sensors, valves, heat exchangers, data acquisition and specially designed spray nozzle systems. Simple, manually operated CIP systems can still be found in use today.

  • Water softening

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    cation-exchange resin.Water softening is the removal of calcium, magnesium, and certain other metal cations in hard water. The resulting soft water requires less soap for the same cleaning effort, as soap is not wasted mopping up calcium ions. Soft water also extends the lifetime of plumbing by reducing or eliminating scale build-up in pipes and fittings. Water softening is usually achieved using lime softening or ion-exchange resins.

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