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  • Sprain

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    A sprain, also known as a torn ligament, is damage to one or more ligaments in a joint, often caused by trauma or the joint being taken beyond its functional range of motion. The severity of sprain ranges from a minor injury which resolves in a few days to a major rupture of one or more ligaments requiring surgical fixation and a period of immobilization. Sprains can occur in any joint but are most common in the ankle and wrist.

  • Knee dislocation

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    A knee dislocation is a knee injury in which there is a complete disruption of the joint between the tibia and the femur. Symptoms include knee pain and instability of the knee. Complications may include injury to an artery around the knee, most commonly the artery behind the knee, or compartment syndrome. About half of cases are the result of major trauma and about half occur as a result of minor trauma. In about half of cases the joint reduces itself before a person arrives at the hospital. Typically there is a break of the anterior cruciate ligament, posterior cruciate ligament, and either the medial collateral ligament or lateral collateral ligament. If the ankle–brachial pressure index is less than 0.9, CT angiography is recommended to detect blood vessel injury. Otherwise repeated physical exams may be sufficient. If the joint remains dislocated, reduction and splinting is indicated; this is typically carried out under procedural sedation. In those with signs of arterial injury, immediate surgery is generally carried out. Multiple surgeries may be required. In just over 10% of cases, an amputation of part of the leg is required. Knee dislocations are rare, occurring in about 1 per 100,000 people per year. Males are more often affected than females. Younger adults are most often affected. Descriptions of this injury date back to at least 20 BC by Meges of Sidon.

  • Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

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    Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACL reconstruction) is a surgical tissue graft replacement of the anterior cruciate ligament, located in the knee, to restore its function after an injury. The torn ligament is removed from the knee before the graft is inserted in an arthroscopic procedure.

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