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  • Rib fracture


    A rib fracture is a break in a rib bone. This typically results in chest pain that is worse with breathing in. Bruising may occur at the site of the break. When several ribs are broken in several places a flail chest results. Potential complications include a pneumothorax, pulmonary contusion, and pneumonia. Rib fractures usually occur from a direct blows to the chest such as during a motor vehicle collision or from a crush injury. Coughing or metastatic cancer may also result in a broken rib. The middle ribs are most commonly fractured. Fractures of the first or second ribs are more likely to be associated with complications. Diagnosis can be made based on symptoms and supported by medical imaging. Pain control is an important part of treatment. This may include the use of paracetamol (acetaminophen), NSAIDs, or opioids. A nerve block may be another option. While fractured ribs have been wrapped, this may increase complications. In those with a flail chest, surgery may improve outcomes. They are a common injury following trauma.

  • Open fracture


    Open fracture is a type of bone fracture in orthopedics, frequently caused by high energy trauma. It is a bone fracture associated with a break in the skin continuity which can cause complications such as infection, malunion, and nonunion. Gustilo open fracture classification is the most commonly used method to classify open fractures, to guide treatment and to predict clinical outcomes. Advanced trauma life support is the first line of action in dealing with open fractures and to rule out other life-threatening condition in cases of trauma. Cephalosporin should be the first line of antibiotics. The antibiotics should be continued for 24 hours to minimise the risk of infections. Therapeutic irrigation, wound debridement, early wound closure and bone fixation are the main management of open fractures. All these actions aimed to reduce the risk of infections.

  • Spiral fracture


    An x-ray image of a spiral fracture to the left humerus of a 27-year-old male. The injury was sustained during a fall. A spiral fracture (a.k.a. torsion fracture) is a bone fracture occurring when torque (a rotating force) is applied along the axis of a bone. Spiral fractures often occur when the body is in motion while one extremity is planted. For example, a spiral fracture of the tibia (the shinbone) can occur in young children when they fall short on an extended leg while jumping. This occurrence is known as "toddler's fracture". Spiral fractures are also recognized as being suspicious in very young children since to obtain a fracture of this sort requires forceful twisting or jerking of the limbs. Child abuse (physical abuse) and certain conditions such as osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) are considered differentials when identifying spiral or torsion fractures.

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