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  • High-density lipoprotein

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    High-density lipoproteins (HDL) are one of the five major groups of lipoproteins. Lipoproteins are complex particles composed of multiple proteins which transport all fat molecules (lipids) around the body within the water outside cells. They are typically composed of 80-100 proteins per particle (organized by one, two or three ApoA; more as the particles enlarge picking up and carrying more fat molecules) and transporting up to hundreds of fat molecules per particle.

  • Multivitamin

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    Multivitamins contain multiple micronutrients, such as vitamins and dietary minerals. A multivitamin is a preparation intended to serve as a dietary supplement - with vitamins, dietary minerals, and other nutritional elements. Such preparations are available in the form of tablets, capsules, pastilles, powders, liquids, or injectable formulations. Other than injectable formulations, which are only available and administered under medical supervision, multivitamins are recognized by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (the United Nations' authority on food standards) as a category of food. In healthy people, most scientific evidence indicates that multivitamin supplements do not prevent cancer, heart disease, or other ailments, and regular supplementation is not necessary. However, specific groups of people may benefit from multivitamin supplements, for example, people with poor nutrition or those at high risk of macular degeneration. There is no standardized scientific definition for multivitamin.

  • Thiamine

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    Thiamine, also known as thiamin or vitamin B1, is a vitamin found in food, and manufactured as a dietary supplement and medication. Food sources of thiamine include whole grains, legumes, and some meats and fish. Grain processing removes much of the thiamine content, so in many countries cereals and flours are enriched with thiamine. Supplements and medications are available to treat and prevent thiamine deficiency and disorders that result from it, including beriberi and Wernicke encephalopathy. Other uses include the treatment of maple syrup urine disease and Leigh syndrome. They are typically taken by mouth, but may also be given by intravenous or intramuscular injection. Thiamine supplements are generally well tolerated. Allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis, may occur when repeated doses are given by injection. Thiamine is in the B complex family. It is an essential micronutrient, which cannot be made in the body. Thiamine is required for metabolism including that of glucose, amino acids, and lipids. Thiamine was discovered in 1897, was the first vitamin to be isolated in 1926, and was first made in 1936. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. Thiamine is available as a generic medication, and as an over-the-counter drug. The wholesale cost in the developing world (as of 2016) is about 2.17 USD per one gm vial. In the United States a month's supply of a multivitamin containing thiamine is less than 25 USD.

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