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  • Pancreatic enzymes (medication)


    Pancreatic enzymes also known as pancrelipase and pancreatin, are commercial mixtures of amylase, lipase, and protease. They are used to treat malabsorption syndrome due to pancreatic problems. These pancreatic problems may be due to cystic fibrosis, surgical removal of the pancreas, long term pancreatitis, or pancreatic cancer among others. It is taken by mouth. Common side effects include vomiting, abdominal pain, constipation, and diarrhea. Other side effects include perianal irritation and high blood uric acid. The enzymes are from pigs. Use is believed to be safe during pregnancy. The components are digestive enzymes similar to those normally produced by the human pancreas. They help the person digest fats, starches, and proteins. Pancreatic enzymes have been used as medications since at least the 1800s. They are on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. In the United Kingdom a typical month's supply costs the NHS about £11.64. In the United States a month of treatment typically costs $50 to $100.

  • Proteases (medical and related uses)


    Proteases (also sometimes referred to as proteolytic enzymes or peptidases) are in use, or have been proposed or tried, for a number of purposes related to medicine or surgery. Some preparations involving protease have undergone successful clinical trials and have regulatory authorization; and some further ones have shown apparently useful effects in experimental medical studies. Proteases have also been used by proponents of alternative therapies, or identified in materials of traditional or folk medicine. A serine protease of human origin, activated protein C, was produced in recombinant form and marketed as Drotrecogin alfa (also known as Xigris (TM)) and licensed for intensive-care treatment of severe sepsis. It was voluntarily withdrawn by the manufacturer in 2011 after being shown to be ineffective. Some of these uses rely directly on the proteolytic activity: others rely on observations of anti-inflammatory activity.

  • Papain


    Papain, also known as papaya proteinase I, is a cysteine protease () enzyme present in papaya (Carica papaya) and mountain papaya (Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis).

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