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  • BUN-to-creatinine ratio


    In medicine, the BUN-to-creatinine ratio is the ratio of two serum laboratory values, the blood urea nitrogen (BUN) (mg/dL) and serum creatinine (Cr) (mg/dL). Outside the United States, particularly in Canada and Europe, the truncated term urea is used (though it is still the same blood chemical) and the units are different (mmol/L). The units of creatinine are also different (μmol/L), and this value is termed the urea-to-creatinine ratio. The ratio may be used to determine the cause of acute kidney injury or dehydration. The principle behind this ratio is the fact that both urea (BUN) and creatinine are freely filtered by the glomerulus; however, urea reabsorbed by the tubules can be regulated (increased or decreased) whereas creatinine reabsorption remains the same (minimal reabsorption).

  • Renal vein thrombosis


    Renal vein thrombosis (RVT) is the formation of a clot in the vein that drains blood from the kidneys, ultimately leading to a reduction in the drainage of one or both kidneys and the possible migration of the clot to other parts of the body. First described by German pathologist Friedrich Daniel von Recklinghausen in 1861, RVT most commonly affects two subpopulations: newly born infants with blood clotting abnormalities or dehydration and adults with nephrotic syndrome. Nephrotic syndrome, a kidney disorder, causes excessive loss of protein in the urine, low levels of albumin in the blood, a high level of cholesterol in the blood and swelling, triggering a hypercoagulable state and increasing chances of clot formation. Other less common causes include hypercoagulable state, cancer, kidney transplantation, Behcet syndrome, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome or blunt trauma to the back or abdomen. Treatment of RVT mainly focuses on preventing further blood clots in the kidneys and maintaining stable renal function. The use of anticoagulants has become the standard treatment in treating this abnormality.

  • Uremia


    Uremia is the condition of having high levels of urea in the blood. Urea is one of the primary components of urine. It can be defined as an excess of amino acid and protein metabolism end products, such as urea and creatinine, in the blood that would be normally excreted in the urine. Uremic syndrome can be defined as the terminal clinical manifestation of kidney failure (also called renal failure). It is the signs, symptoms and results from laboratory tests which result from inadequate excretory, regulatory and endocrine function of the kidneys. Both uremia and uremic syndrome have been used interchangeably to denote a very high plasma urea concentration that is the result of renal failure. The former denotation will be used for the rest of the article. Azotemia is another word that refers to high levels of urea and is used primarily when the abnormality can be measured chemically but is not yet so severe as to produce symptoms. Uremia describes the pathological and symptomatic manifestations of severe azotemia. There is no specific time for the onset of uremia for people with progressive loss of kidney function. People with kidney function below 50% (i.e. a glomerular filtration rate GFR between 50 and 60 mL) and over 30 years of age may have uremia to a degree. This means an estimated 8 million people in the United States with a GFR of less than 60 mL have uremic symptoms. The symptoms, such as fatigue, can be very vague, making the diagnosis of impaired renal function difficult. Treatment is to perform dialysis or a renal transplant.

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