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  • Nephrotic syndrome

    serch.it?q=Nephrotic-syndrome

    Nephrotic syndrome is a collection of symptoms due to kidney damage. This includes protein in the urine, low blood albumin levels, high blood lipids, and significant swelling. Other symptoms may include weight gain, feeling tired, and foamy urine. Complications may include blood clots, infections, and high blood pressure. Causes include a number of kidney diseases such as focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, membranous nephropathy, and minimal change disease. It may also occur as a complication of diabetes or lupus. The underlying mechanism typically involves damage to the glomeruli of the kidney. Diagnosis is typically based on urine testing and sometimes a kidney biopsy. It differs from nephritic syndrome in that there are no red blood cells in the urine. Treatment is directed at the underlying cause. Other efforts include managing high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, and infection risk. A low salt diet and limiting fluids is often recommended. About 5 per 100,000 people are affected per year. The usual underlying cause varies between children and adults.

  • Low-protein diet

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    A low-protein diet is a diet in which people reduce their intake of protein. A low-protein diet is prescribed for those with inherited metabolic disorders, such as Phenylketonuria and Homocystinuria and reduced protein levels have been used by people with kidney or liver disease. Low protein consumption appears to reduce the risk of bone breakage, presumably through changes in calcium homeostasis. Consequently, there is no uniform definition of what constitutes low-protein, because the amount and composition of protein for an individual suffering from phenylketonuria would differ substantially from one suffering homocystinuria. The amount used by those with liver disease would still result in individuals being in nitrogen balance. Amino acids that are excess to requirement cannot be stored, but must be modified by deamination (removal of the amine group). As this occurs in the liver and kidneys, some individuals with damaged livers or kidneys may be advised to eat less protein. Due to the sulphur content of the amino acids methionine and cysteine, excess of these amino acids leads to the production of acid through sulphate ions.

  • Protein toxicity

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    Protein toxicity is the effect of the buildup of protein metabolic waste compounds due to insufficient kidney function. It can occur in people with pre-existing chronic kidney disease, or those who have lost kidney function due to age.

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