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  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease

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    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), also known as acid reflux, is a long term condition in which stomach contents rise up into the esophagus, resulting in either symptoms or complications. Symptoms include the taste of acid in the back of the mouth, heartburn, bad breath, chest pain, vomiting, breathing problems, and wearing away of the teeth. Complications include esophagitis, esophageal stricture, and Barrett's esophagus. Risk factors include obesity, pregnancy, smoking, hiatal hernia, and taking certain medicines. Medications involved may include antihistamines, calcium channel blockers, antidepressants, and sleeping medications. Acid reflux is due to poor closure of the lower esophageal sphincter, which is at the junction between the stomach and the esophagus. Diagnosis among those who do not improve with simpler measures may involve gastroscopy, upper GI series, esophageal pH monitoring, or esophageal manometry. Treatment options include lifestyle changes; medications; and sometimes surgery for those who do not improve with the first two measures.

  • Heartburn

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    Heartburn, also known as acid indigestion, is a burning sensation in the central chest or upper central abdomen. The discomfort often rises in the chest and may radiate to the neck, throat, or angle of the jaw. Heartburn is usually due to regurgitation of gastric acid (gastric reflux) into the esophagus and is the major symptom of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). In about 0.6% of cases it is a symptom of ischemic heart disease.

  • Pink lady (medicine)

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    In medicine, pink lady is a term used for a combination of medications used to treat gastroesophageal reflux or gastritis. It usually consists of an antacid and the anaesthetic lidocaine. Some variants contain an anticholinergic. The name of the preparation comes from its colour – pink. Pink ladies often relieve symptoms for gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). However, they are generally believed to be insufficient to diagnose GERD and rule-out other causes of chest pain and/or abdominal pain such as myocardial infarction (heart attack). The pink lady is the de facto term describing xylocaine viscous and a liquid antacid given by mouth to treat emergency department patients and help determine if the chest pains are either heart or digestive related. If esophageal symptoms subside the treatment may indicate the symptoms are non-cardiac.

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