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  • Leukoplakia


    Leukoplakia generally refers to a firmly attached white patch on a mucous membrane which is associated with an increased risk of cancer. The edges of the lesion are typically abrupt and the lesion changes with time. Advanced forms may develop red patches. There are generally no other symptoms. It usually occurs within the mouth, although sometimes mucosa in other parts of the gastrointestinal tract, urinary tract, or genitals may be affected. The cause of leukoplakia is unknown. Risk factors for formation inside the mouth include smoking, chewing tobacco, excessive alcohol, and use of betel nuts. One specific type is common in HIV/AIDS. It is a precancerous lesion, a tissue alteration in which cancer is more likely to develop. The chance of cancer formation depends on the type, with between 3–15% of localized leukoplakia and 70–100% of proliferative leukoplakia developing into squamous cell carcinoma. Leukoplakia is a descriptive term that should only be applied after other possible causes are ruled out. Tissue biopsy generally shows increased keratin build up with or without abnormal cells, but is not diagnostic. Other conditions that can appear similar include yeast infections, lichen planus, and keratosis due to repeated minor trauma. The lesions from a yeast infection can typically be rubbed off while those of leukoplakia cannot. Treatment recommendations depend on features of the lesion. If abnormal cells are present or the lesion is small surgical removal is often recommended; otherwise close follow up at three to six month intervals may be sufficient. People are generally advised to stop smoking and limit the drinking of alcohol. In potentially half of cases leukoplakia will shrink with stopping smoking; however, if smoking is continued up to 66% of cases will become more white and thick. The percentage of people affected is estimated at 1–3%. Leukoplakia becomes more common with age, typically not occurring until after 30. Rates may be as high as 8% in men over the age of 70.

  • Chronic wound


    A chronic wound is a wound that does not heal in an orderly set of stages and in a predictable amount of time the way most wounds do; wounds that do not heal within three months are often considered chronic. Chronic wounds seem to be detained in one or more of the phases of wound healing. For example, chronic wounds often remain in the inflammatory stage for too long. To overcome that stage and jump-start the healing process a number of factors need to be addressed such as bacterial burden, necrotic tissue, and moisture balance of the whole wound. In acute wounds, there is a precise balance between production and degradation of molecules such as collagen; in chronic wounds this balance is lost and degradation plays too large a role. Chronic wounds may never heal or may take years to do so. These wounds cause patients severe emotional and physical stress and create a significant financial burden on patients and the whole healthcare system. Acute and chronic wounds are at opposite ends of a spectrum of wound-healing types that progress toward being healed at different rates.

  • Pedicure


    A woman's feet after a pedicure A pedicure in progress Street pedicure in Bamako A pedicure is a cosmetic treatment of the feet and toenails, analogous to a manicure. Pedicures are done for cosmetic, therapeutic purposes. They are popular throughout the world, and especially among women. Pedicures include care not only for the toenails; dead skin cells are rubbed off the bottom of the feet using a rough stone (often a pumice stone). Skin care is often provided up to the knee, including granular exfoliation, moisturizing, and massage. The word pedicure is derived from the Latin words pedis, which means "of the foot", and cura, which means "care".

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