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  • Blister


    A blister is a small pocket of body fluid (lymph, serum, plasma, blood, or pus) within the upper layers of the skin, typically caused by forceful rubbing (friction), burning, freezing, chemical exposure or infection. Most blisters are filled with a clear fluid, either serum or plasma. However, blisters can be filled with blood (known as "blood blisters") or with pus (for instance, if they become infected). The word "blister" entered English in the 14th century. It came from the Middle Dutch "bluyster" and was a modification of the Old French "blostre", which meant a leprous nodule—a rise in the skin due to leprosy. In dermatology today, the words vesicle and bulla refer to blisters of smaller or greater size, respectively. To heal properly, a blister should not be popped unless medically necessary. If popped, the excess skin should not be removed because the skin underneath needs that top layer to heal properly.

  • Oral rehydration therapy


    Oral rehydration therapy (ORT) is a type of fluid replacement used to prevent and treat dehydration, especially that due to diarrhea. It involves drinking water with modest amounts of sugar and salts, specifically sodium and potassium. Oral rehydration therapy can also be given by a nasogastric tube. Therapy should routinely include the use of zinc supplements. Use of oral rehydration therapy decreases the risk of death from diarrhea by about 93%. Side effects may include vomiting, high blood sodium, or high blood potassium. If vomiting occurs, it is recommended that use be paused for 10 minutes and then gradually restarted. The recommended formulation includes sodium chloride, sodium citrate, potassium chloride, and glucose. Glucose may be replaced by sucrose and sodium citrate may be replaced by sodium bicarbonate, if not available. It works as glucose increases the uptake of sodium and thus water by the intestines. A number of other formulations are also available including versions that can be made at home. However, the use of homemade solutions has not been well studied. Oral rehydration therapy was developed in the 1940s, but did not come into common use until the 1970s. Oral rehydration solution is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. The wholesale cost in the developing world of a package to mix with a liter of water is 0.03 to US$0.20. Globally as of 2015 oral rehydration therapy is used by 41% of children with diarrhea. This use has played an important role in reducing the number of deaths in children under the age of five.

  • Friction burn


    Friction burn caused by a rope.Friction burn caused by a treadmill. Example of a third degree friction burn A friction burn is a form of abrasion caused by the friction of skin rubbing against a surface. A friction burn may also be referred to as skinning, chafing, or a term named for the surface causing the burn such as rope burn, carpet burn or rug burn. Because friction generates heat, extreme cases of chafing may result in genuine burning of the outer layers of skin. The dermal papillae may be exposed after top layers of the dermis (stratum corneum, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum and stratum basale) have been removed. This is often uncomfortable and even painful, but rarely results in bleeding. A person's own skin (or the skin of another person) may be sufficient to act as an abrasive surface to cause friction burn. More commonly, friction with abrasive surfaces, including clothing, carpet, or rope, can lead to a friction burn. Common places at which skin-to-skin chafing can occur are between the thighs and under the armpits. Friction burns are very common with clothing such as trousers on the knees caused by playing sport or sliding on wooden surfaces. Less dangerous friction burns can occur frequently on sensitive skin surfaces such as the genitals, such as during sexual intercourse or masturbation. The risks of a friction burn include infection and temporary or permanent scarring.

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