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  • Impetigo


    Impetigo is a bacterial infection that involves the superficial skin. The most common presentation is yellowish crusts on the face, arms, or legs. Less commonly there may be large blisters which affect the groin or armpits. The lesions may be painful or itchy. Fever is uncommon. It is typically due to either Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pyogenes. Risk factors include attending day care, crowding, poor nutrition, diabetes mellitus, contact sports, and breaks in the skin such as from mosquito bites, eczema, scabies, or herpes. With contact it can spread around or between people. Diagnosis is typically based on the symptoms and appearance. Prevention is by hand washing, avoiding people who are infected, and cleaning injuries. Treatment is typically with antibiotic creams such as mupirocin or fusidic acid. Antibiotics by mouth, such as cephalexin, may be used if large areas are affected. Antibiotic-resistant forms have been found. Impetigo affected about 140 million people (2% of the world population) in 2010. It can occur at any age, but is most common in young children. In some places the condition is also known as "school sores". Without treatment people typically get better within three weeks. Complications may include cellulitis or poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis. The name is from the Latin impetere meaning "attack".

  • Herpes gladiatorum


    Herpes gladiatorum is one of the most infectious of herpes-caused diseases, and is transmissible by skin-to-skin contact. The disease was first described in the 1960s in the New England Journal of Medicine. It is caused by contagious infection with human herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), which more commonly causes oral herpes (cold sores). Another strain, HSV-2 usually causes genital herpes, although the strains are very similar and either can cause herpes in any location. While the disease is commonly passed through normal human contact, it is strongly associated with contact sports—outbreaks in sporting clubs being relatively common. Other names for the disease are herpes rugbiorum or "scrumpox" (after rugby football), "wrestler's herpes" or "mat pox" (after wrestling). In one of the largest outbreaks ever among high-school wrestlers at a four-week intensive training camp, HSV was identified in 60 of 175 wrestlers. Lesions were on the head in 73 percent of the wrestlers, the extremities in 42 percent, and the trunk in 28 percent. Physical symptoms sometimes recur in the skin.

  • Pitted keratolysis


    Pitted keratolysis (also known as Keratolysis plantare sulcatum, Keratoma plantare sulcatum, and Ringed keratolysis) is a bacterial skin infection of the foot. The infection is characterized by craterlike pits on the sole of the feet and toes, particularly weight bearing areas. The infection is caused by Corynebacterium species bacteria and sometimes Kytococcus sedentarius. Excessive sweating of the feet and use of occlusive footwear provide an environment in which these bacteria thrive and therefore increase the risk of developing pitted keratolysis. The condition is fairly common, especially in the military where wet shoes/boots are worn for extended periods of time without removing/cleaning. Skin biopsy specimens are not usually utilized, as the diagnosis of pitted keratolysis is often made by visual examination and recognition of the characteristic odor. Wood lamp examination results are inconsistent. Treatment of pitted keratolysis requires the application of antibiotics to the skin such as benzoyl peroxide, clindamycin, erythromycin, fusidic acid, or mupirocin. Prevention efforts aim to keep the feet dry by using moisture-wicking shoes and socks as well as antiperspirants.

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