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  • Oakland, California


    Oakland is the largest city and the county seat of Alameda County, California, United States. A major West Coast port city, Oakland is the largest city in the East Bay region of the San Francisco Bay Area, the third largest city overall in the San Francisco Bay Area, the eighth most populated city in California, and the 45th largest city in the United States. With a population of 425,195 , it serves as a trade center for the San Francisco Bay Area; its Port of Oakland is the busiest port in the San Francisco Bay, the entirety of Northern California, and the fifth busiest in the United States of America. An act to incorporate the city was passed on May 4, 1852, and incorporation was later approved on March 25, 1854, which officially made Oakland a city. Oakland is a charter city. Oakland's territory covers what was once a mosaic of California coastal terrace prairie, oak woodland, and north coastal scrub. Its land served as a rich resource when its hillside oak and redwood timber were logged to build San Francisco. Oakland's fertile flatland soils helped it become a prolific agricultural region.

  • Montclair, Oakland, California


    Montclair (also known as the Montclair District or Montclair Village) is an affluent neighborhood in Oakland, California, United States. Considered by many in Oakland and the Bay Area as one of Oakland's most prestigious neighborhoods Montclair is located along the western slope of the Oakland hills from a valley formed by the Hayward Fault to the upper ridge of the hills. Although there is no formal definition of the neighborhood the general boundaries are Highway 24 to the north, Joaquin Miller Road to the south, the city of Piedmont to the west and the Contra Costa County border to the east. The center of the neighborhood is a compact shopping district known as Montclair Village which is located next to Highway 13 in the bottom of the valley. It lies at an elevation of 640 feet (195 m). The hills of Montclair are heavily forested and generally characterized by winding streets and large single-family houses, homes ranging from small but expensive cottages to mansions and estates. A few small apartment and condominium complexes are located in Montclair, primarily in the Village area.

  • Costa–Hawkins Rental Housing Act


    The Costa–Hawkins Rental Housing Act ("Costa–Hawkins") is a California state law, enacted in 1995, which places limits on municipal rent control ordinances. Costa–Hawkins preempts the field in two major ways. First, it prohibits cities from establishing rent control over certain kinds of residential units, e.g., single family dwellings and condominiums, and newly constructed apartment units; these are deemed exempt. Second, it prohibits "vacancy control", also called "strict" rent control. If an apartment is under "vacancy control", the city's ordinance works to deny or limit an owner's ability to increase its rent to new tenant(s). It works this way even in cases where the prior tenant voluntarily vacated the apartment or was evicted for a 'just cause' (such as failure to pay rent). In other words Costa–Hawkins, by now prohibiting "vacancy control" in the above voluntary or 'just cause' circumstances, mandates that cities allow an apartment owner the right to rent the vacancy at any price (i.e., usually the market price). Rent control in California is largely the creation of its municipalities. This ability of city governments is limited by the federal and state constitutions, as well as federal and state laws. Costa–Hawkins is a key state statute enacted to manage the power of California cities to regulate their rental markets.

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