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  • Plug-in electric vehicles in the United States


    The Chevrolet Volt plug-in hybrid is the all-time top selling plug-in electric vehicle in the U.S. with over 150,000 units delivered through November 2018 The adoption of plug-in electric vehicles in the United States is actively supported by the American federal government, and several state and local governments. , cumulative sales in the U.S. totaled one million highway legal plug-in electric vehicles since the market launch of the Tesla Roadster in 2008. , the American stock represented about 25% of the global plug-in car stock, and the U.S. had the world's third largest stock of plug-in passenger cars after China and Europe. The U.S. market share of plug-in electric passenger cars increased from 0.14% in 2011 to 0.62% in 2013. The plug-in segment reached a market share of 0.75% in 2014 and fell to 0.66% in 2015. Then climbed to 0.90% in 2016, and achieved a record market share of 1.13% in 2017. California is the largest plug-in car regional market in the country, with over 500,000 plug-in electric vehicles sold by the end of November 2018, representing almost half of plug-in sales in the American market. The other nine states that follow California's Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) regulations accounted for another 10% of cumulative plug-in car sales in the U.S. , there were 43 highway legal plug-in cars available in the American market under 21 brands or marques, plus several models of electric motorcycles, utility vans and neighborhood electric vehicles (NEVs). , the Chevrolet Volt plug-in hybrid is the all-time best selling plug-in electric car with 148,556 units (both generations), followed by the Tesla Model S all-electric car with about 138,000, and the Nissan Leaf with 126,747. The Model S has been the best selling plug-in car in the U.S. for three consecutive years, from 2015 to 2017. , the United States had 12,203 charging stations across the country, led by California with 2,976 stations (24.4%). In terms of public charging points, there were 30,669 public outlets available across the country by the end of January 2016, again led by California with 9,086 charging points (29.6%). The Energy Improvement and Extension Act of 2008 granted tax credits for new qualified plug-in electric vehicles. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) also authorized federal tax credits for converted plug-ins. The federal tax credit for new plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) is worth between and depending on battery capacity. , a total of 37 states and Washington, D.C. have established incentives and tax or fee exemptions for BEVs and PHEVs, or utility-rate breaks, and other non-monetary incentives such as free parking and high-occupancy vehicle lane access. The U.S. government also has pledged in federal grants to support the development of next-generation electric cars and batteries, and million for the installation of electric vehicle charging infrastructure in 16 different metropolitan areas around the country. In his 2011 State of the Union address, President Barack Obama set the goal for the U.S. to become the first country to have one million electric vehicles on the road by 2015. Due to a initial slow rate of plug-in car sales, the goal was achieved only in September 2018. The Governor of California, Jerry Brown, issued an executive order in March 2012 that established the goal of getting 1.5 million zero-emission vehicles (ZEVs) on California roads by 2025.

  • Dunlop Tyres


    Dunlop is a brand of tyres owned by various companies around the world. Founded by pneumatic tyre pioneer John Boyd Dunlop in Birmingham, England in 1889, it is owned and operated by Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company in North America, Europe, Australia and New Zealand. In India the brand is owned by Dunlop India Ltd. whose parent company is the Ruia Group. In Asia (Japan, China, Indonesia, Thailand and Russia), Africa and Latin America (except Mexico) by Sumitomo Rubber Industries. In 1985, Dunlop Rubber Company was acquired by BTR plc, and Sumitomo acquired the rights to manufacture and market Dunlop branded road tyres. Sumitomo did not acquire any Dunlop company. In 1997 Sumitomo gained agreement to use the Dunlop name in its corporate name, and changed the name of its UK subsidiary to Dunlop Tyres Ltd. In 1999 Sumitomo and Goodyear began a joint venture by which Sumitomo continued to manufacture all Japanese-made tyres under the Dunlop name, while Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company bought 75% of the European and North American tyre businesses of Sumitomo. The company has extensive manufacturing operations throughout the world. With the closure of the Washington plant in 2006, Goodyear Dunlop ceased mainstream car and lorry tyre production in the UK. In 2016 it was announced that Sumitomo Rubber Industries would commence the second phase of its $131 Million (USD) investment for the upgrade and expansion of its Dunlop tire manufacturing plant at Ladysmith, in South Africa. Sport tyres Until May 2014 Goodyear Dunlop occupied a compact part of the site with their British main office. In the UK, the company operates as a sales organisation, importing tyres from manufacturing plants around the world, including China, Slovenia and Poland. The Goodyear Dunlop joint venture is managed from sites in Luxembourg and Brussels, which report to Goodyear in Akron, Ohio, United States.

  • Norton Motorcycle Company


    The Norton Motorcycle Company (formerly Norton Motors, Ltd.) is a British motorcycle marque, originally from Birmingham, UK. It was founded in 1898 as a manufacturer of "fittings and parts for the two-wheel trade". By 1902, the company began manufacturing motorcycles with bought-in engines. In 1908, a Norton-built engine was added to the range. This began a long series of production of single and eventually twin-cylinder motorcycles, and a long history of racing involvement. Production of the military Model 16 H and Big 4 sidevalve motorcycles was Norton's contribution to the WWII war effort, almost 100,000 being manufactured. When major shareholders started to leave Norton in 1953, the company declined and Associated Motor Cycles bought the shares. Although motorcycle sales went through a recession in the 1950s, and Norton Motors Ltd was only a small manufacturer, Norton sales flourished. A series of Norton Dominator Twins of 500 cc, then 600 cc, then 650 cc and then the 750 cc Norton Atlas kept sales buoyant, especially with sales to the United States. In 1968, the new 750 cc Norton Commando Model appeared, with the engine/gearbox/swingarm unit isolastically insulated from the frame with a series of rubber mountings. This kept the vibrations from the rider, giving a smooth comfortable ride. The Commando was a best seller, and voted #1 Motorcycle of the Year a number of times in Britain. 850 cc models appeared for 1973, giving more torque. For 1975 an electric start arrived in the 850 Mk3. The largest UK motorcycle manufacturer at the time was BSA-Triumph, comprising Birmingham Small Arms Company in Birmingham, and Triumph Motorcycles in Meriden. BSA-Triumph faced difficulties caused by poor management, outdated union practices, old-fashioned motorcycle designs and antiquated factory conditions. A merger with Norton Motorcycles was proposed; but although Dennis Poore's Norton Motorcycles was by far the smaller partner, Poore effectively secured a take-over of BSA-Triumph, forming Norton Villiers Triumph (NVT). The Triumph factory Meriden was the least modern; but workers engaged in a "sit-in", forming a workers' co-operative. Poore was CEO of Manganese Bronze Holdings, a company apparently more concerned with asset stripping than with motorcycle production. Subsequent political manoeuvrings led to the downfall of NVT, as taxpayer-assisted wranglings over amalgamations and sell-offs all but killed the once extensive UK motorcycle industry. In late 2008, Stuart Garner, a UK businessman, bought the rights to Norton from some US concerns and relaunched Norton in its Midlands home at Donington Park where it will develop the 961cc Norton Commando, and a new range of Norton motorcycles.

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