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  • Pouchoscopy


    Pouchoscopy is a minimally invasive endoscopic procedure to examine an ileo-anal pouch, a replacement for the colon / rectum which is surgically created from the small intestine (ileum) as Treatment for ulcerative colitis and as a treatment for other inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn's disease, a preventative measure in certain genetic illnesses such as FAP or HNPCC or as a procedure in the treatment of colon cancer. Typically, a fiber optic camera on a flexible tube is passed through the anus. Although it may determine the integrity of the J-pouch (hence the name pouchoscopy), it is much more common to perform a pouchogram to determine the pouch's integrity (a necessary step in preparing for reversal of the temporary ileostomy, or takedown surgery). A pouchoscopy is normally part of a routine follow up and is used to confirm diagnosis of pouchitis and cuffitis.

  • Non-lifting sign


    The non-lifting sign is the suitability of large flat or sessile colorectal polyps for polypectomy by endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR). When fluid is injected under a polyp in preparation for endoscopic mucosal resection, some polyps do not "lift", indicating that the polyp is not separating from the submucosa. This makes polypectomy more technically difficult, and increases the risk of intestinal perforation if polypectomy is then attempted. It is also thought to be indicative of an early colorectal cancer that has invaded the submucosa significantly (sm3 - invasion down to the lower one third of the submucosa), which would make surgical removal of the tumour preferable to allow complete removal of the cancer. Consequently, the non-lifting sign is generally considered to be a contraindication to performing endoscopic mucosal resection.

  • Enteroscopy


    Enteroscopy is the procedure of using an endoscope for the direct visualization of the small bowel. Etymologically, the word could potentially refer to any bowel endoscopy (entero- + -scopy), but idiomatically it is conventionally restricted to small bowel endoscopy, in distinction from colonoscopy, which is large bowel endoscopy. Various types of enteroscopy exist, as follows: video chip endoscope double-balloon enteroscopy single-balloon enteroscopy spiral enteroscopy wireless endoscopy system capsule endoscopyAs the small bowel can often be a source of pathology, endoscopy of the small bowel can be a useful diagnostic and therapeutic technique. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, also called upper endoscopy, gets as far as the first segment of the small bowel, the duodenum, but the next two, the jejunum and ileum, require other methods. Visualization of the small bowel has long posed a challenge to gastroenterologists, due to the physical difficulty of reaching more distal regions of the small bowel.

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