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  • Pulmonary scientist


    A Pulmonary Scientist is a health care occupation in the field of diagnostic studies related specifically to pulmonary function, the term Respiratory Scientist may also refer to a Pulmonologist who holds a medical degree and a doctoral degree (MD-PhD). Internationally pulmonary scientists have many different titles, such as: pulmonary function technologist, respiratory scientist, pulmonary scientist, cardiopulmonary specialist and in some places registered respiratory therapists are also used in the role of pulmonary scientists. A physician in respiratory science is generally referred to as a physician in their title (i.e. Respiratory Physician-Scientist). Respiratory science is a diminishing field of study and research even though the increase in respiratory related disease is increasing.

  • Respiratory examination


    In medicine, the respiratory examination is performed as part of a physical examination, or when a patient presents with a respiratory problem (dyspnea (shortness of breath), cough, chest pain) or a history that suggests a pathology of the lungs. It is very rarely performed in its entirety or in isolation; most commonly, it is merged with the cardiac examination. The four steps of the respiratory exam are inspection (observation), palpation (feeling), percussion (tapping) and auscultation (listening) of the lungs from both the front and the back. Auscultation should be done directly on the skin, not over clothing.

  • Pulmonary contusion


    A pulmonary contusion, also known as lung contusion, is a bruise of the lung, caused by chest trauma. As a result of damage to capillaries, blood and other fluids accumulate in the lung tissue. The excess fluid interferes with gas exchange, potentially leading to inadequate oxygen levels (hypoxia). Unlike pulmonary laceration, another type of lung injury, pulmonary contusion does not involve a cut or tear of the lung tissue. A pulmonary contusion is usually caused directly by blunt trauma but can also result from explosion injuries or a shock wave associated with penetrating trauma. With the use of explosives during World Wars I and II, pulmonary contusion resulting from blasts gained recognition. In the 1960s its occurrence in civilians began to receive wider recognition, in which cases it is usually caused by traffic accidents. The use of seat belts and airbags reduces the risk to vehicle occupants. Diagnosis is made by studying the cause of the injury, physical examination and chest radiography.

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