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  • Cancer


    Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. These contrast with benign tumors, which do not spread to other parts of the body. Possible signs and symptoms include a lump, abnormal bleeding, prolonged cough, unexplained weight loss and a change in bowel movements. While these symptoms may indicate cancer, they may have other causes. Over 100 types of cancers affect humans. Tobacco use is the cause of about 22% of cancer deaths. Another 10% are due to obesity, poor diet, lack of physical activity or excessive drinking of alcohol. Other factors include certain infections, exposure to ionizing radiation and environmental pollutants. In the developing world, 15% of cancers are due to infections such as Helicobacter pylori, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, human papillomavirus infection, Epstein–Barr virus and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). These factors act, at least partly, by changing the genes of a cell. Typically, many genetic changes are required before cancer develops. Approximately 5–10% of cancers are due to inherited genetic defects from a person's parents. Cancer can be detected by certain signs and symptoms or screening tests. It is then typically further investigated by medical imaging and confirmed by biopsy. Many cancers can be prevented by not smoking, maintaining a healthy weight, not drinking too much alcohol, eating plenty of vegetables, fruits and whole grains, vaccination against certain infectious diseases, not eating too much processed and red meat and avoiding too much sunlight exposure. Early detection through screening is useful for cervical and colorectal cancer. The benefits of screening in breast cancer are controversial. Cancer is often treated with some combination of radiation therapy, surgery, chemotherapy and targeted therapy. Pain and symptom management are an important part of care. Palliative care is particularly important in people with advanced disease. The chance of survival depends on the type of cancer and extent of disease at the start of treatment. In children under 15 at diagnosis, the five-year survival rate in the developed world is on average 80%. For cancer in the United States, the average five-year survival rate is 66%. In 2015, about 90.5 million people had cancer. About 14.1 million new cases occur a year (not including skin cancer other than melanoma). It caused about 8.8 million deaths (15.7% of deaths). The most common types of cancer in males are lung cancer, prostate cancer, colorectal cancer and stomach cancer. In females, the most common types are breast cancer, colorectal cancer, lung cancer and cervical cancer. If skin cancer other than melanoma were included in total new cancer cases each year, it would account for around 40% of cases. In children, acute lymphoblastic leukemia and brain tumors are most common, except in Africa where non-Hodgkin lymphoma occurs more often. In 2012, about 165,000 children under 15 years of age were diagnosed with cancer. The risk of cancer increases significantly with age, and many cancers occur more commonly in developed countries. Rates are increasing as more people live to an old age and as lifestyle changes occur in the developing world. The financial costs of cancer were estimated at $1.16 trillion USD per year .

  • Cancer pain


    Pain in cancer may arise from a tumor compressing or infiltrating nearby body parts; from treatments and diagnostic procedures; or from skin, nerve and other changes caused by a hormone imbalance or immune response. Most chronic (long-lasting) pain is caused by the illness and most acute (short-term) pain is caused by treatment or diagnostic procedures. However, radiotherapy, surgery and chemotherapy may produce painful conditions that persist long after treatment has ended. The presence of pain depends mainly on the location of the cancer and the stage of the disease. At any given time, about half of all people diagnosed with malignant cancer are experiencing pain, and two thirds of those with advanced cancer experience pain of such intensity that it adversely affects their sleep, mood, social relations and activities of daily living. With competent management, cancer pain can be eliminated or well controlled in 80% to 90% of cases, but nearly 50% of cancer patients in the developed world receive less than optimal care. Worldwide, nearly 80% of people with cancer receive little or no pain medication. Cancer pain in children is also reported as being under-treated.

  • List of cancer mortality rates in the United States


    Map of leukemia mortality in black females in the U.S. 1950-94. Different types of cancer can vary wildly in their prognosis. While the stage of cancer at diagnosis is most relevant to the survival of an individual patient, the type of cancer suggests an overall survival rate of the population. The figures below are an overall reflection of mortality rates throughout the U.S. population. For example, those diagnosed with breast or prostate cancer have a much better outcome than those diagnosed with lung or stomach cancer. In most statistical records, cancers are grouped by location, although some cancers of the same location can have extremely variable survival rates depending on the type of cancer. For example, stage 1 pancreatic adenocarcinoma has a 5-year survival rate of 12%, while stage 1 pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors have a 5-year survival rate of 61%. Between 2007 and 2013, the percentage of cancer patients alive within five years after cancer diagnosis are displayed in the table below. These figures represent all deaths, whether due to the cancer itself, or death from another cause in a person with cancer.Note: This is not a complete list of cancer mortality rates as published by the NCI. These figures are at least five years old and do not reflect recent advances in medicine that have improved the detection and treatments of cancer and their outcomes. Again, these are average death rates that should not be assumed to apply to individuals, whose prognoses will vary depending on age, sex, race, general health, swiftness of detection, type of treatment, progression of disease, and complicating factors. Type Survival Rate Oral Cancer 64.5% Lip cancer 90% Hypopharynx cancer 33% Esophageal cancer 19% Stomach cancer 30.6% Small intestine cancer 67.5% Colorectal cancer 64.9% Hepatic and bile duct cancer 17.6% Gallbladder cancer 18.2% Pancreatic cancer (all types) 8.2% Laryngeal cancer 60.7% Lung cancer (all types) 18.1% Mesothelioma 9% Tracheal cancer 52.9% Bone cancer (all types) 67.7% Soft tissue, not otherwise specified 64.4% Skin cancer (excluding basal and squamous) 91.7% Breast cancer 89.7% Breast cancer in situ 100% Uterine cancer 29.8%-82.7% Ovarian cancer 46.5% Cervical cancer 67.1% Prostate cancer 98.6% Testicular cancer 95.1% Bladder cancer 77.3% Renal cancer 74.1% Ocular cancer 82.7% Glioblastoma 4% Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma 0% Myeloma 49.6% Hodgkin's lymphoma 86.4% Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma 71% Thyroid cancer 98.2% Leukemia (Acute lymphocytic) 68.2% Leukemia (Acute myelomonocytic) 24% Leukemia (Chronic lymphocytic) 83.2% Leukemia (Chronic myeloid) 66.9% While breast cancer in situ is not a true cancer (lacking the invasive nature of cancer), physicians often present the diagnosis of cancer to patients. In recent years, this has been controversial, as it artificially inflates the rates of breast cancer.

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