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  • Vehicle inspection in the United States

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    Vehicle inspection laws by state: Striped: Both safety and emissions testing required In the United States, vehicle safety inspection and emissions inspection are governed by each state individually. 17 states have a periodic (annual or biennial) safety inspection program, while Maryland and Alabama require a safety inspection on sale or transfer of vehicles which were previously registered in another state. In 1977, the federal Clean Air Act was amended by Congress to require states to implement vehicle emissions inspection programs, known as I/M programs (for Inspection and Maintenance), in all major metropolitan areas whose air quality failed to meet certain federal standards. New York's program started in 1982, California's program ("Smog Check") started in 1984, and Illinois' program started in 1986. The Clean Air Act of 1990 required some states to enact vehicle emissions inspection programs. State impacted were those in metropolitan areas where air quality did not meet federal standards. Some states, including Kentucky and Minnesota, have discontinued their testing programs in recent years with approval from the federal government.

  • Motorcycle testing and measurement

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    A Triumph Sprint ST on a chassis dynamometer Suzuki Hayabusa at Bonneville Speed Week.Motorcycle testing and measurement includes a range of more than two dozen statistics giving the specifications of the motorcycle, and the actual performance, expressed by such things as the output of the engine, and the top speed or acceleration of the motorcycle. Most parameters are uncontroversial and claims made by manufacturers are generally accepted without verification. These might include simple measurements like rake, trail, or wheelbase, or basic features, such as the type of brakes or ignition system. Other measurements are often doubted or subject to misunderstandings, and the motorcycling press serves as an independent check on sometimes unrealistic sales and marketing claims. Many of these numbers are subject to variable methods of measurements, or disagreement as to the definition of the statistic. The parameters most often in contention for motorcycles are the weight, the engine output (power and torque), and the overall performance, especially acceleration, top speed, and fuel economy. With electric motorcycles and scooters, the range between charges is often a pivotal measurement.

  • Vehicle identification number

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    VIN on a Chinese moped Porsche 993 GT2 VIN visible in the windshield VIN is recorded in Vehicle License of China. A vehicle identification number (VIN) is a unique code, including a serial number, used by the automotive industry to identify individual motor vehicles, towed vehicles, motorcycles, scooters and mopeds, as defined in ISO 3779 (content and structure) and ISO 4030 (location and attachment). VINs were first used in 1954 in the United States. From 1954 to 1981, there was no accepted standard for these numbers, so different manufacturers used different formats. In 1981, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration of the United States standardized the format. It required all on-road vehicles sold to contain a 17-character VIN, which does not include the letters I (i), O (o), and Q (q) (to avoid confusion with numerals 1 and 0). There are vehicle history services in several countries that help potential car owners use VINs to find vehicles that are defective or have been written off. See the Used car article for a list of countries where this service is available.

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