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  • Refrigerator

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    Food in a refrigerator with its door open A side-by-side refrigerator-freezer with an icemaker A refrigerator (colloquially fridge) is a popular household appliance that consists of a thermally insulated compartment and a heat pump (mechanical, electronic or chemical) that transfers heat from the inside of the fridge to its external environment so that the inside of the fridge is cooled to a temperature below the ambient temperature of the room. Refrigeration is an essential food storage technique in developed countries. The lower temperature lowers the reproduction rate of bacteria, so the refrigerator reduces the rate of spoilage. A refrigerator maintains a temperature a few degrees above the freezing point of water. Optimum temperature range for perishable food storage is . A similar device that maintains a temperature below the freezing point of water is called a freezer. The refrigerator replaced the icebox, which had been a common household appliance for almost a century and a half. The first cooling systems for food involved using ice. Artificial refrigeration began in the mid-1750s, and developed in the early 1800s.

  • Washing machine

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    A typical front-loader washing machine A washing machine (laundry machine, clothes washer, or washer) is a device used to wash laundry. The term is mostly applied to machines that use water as opposed to dry cleaning (which uses alternative cleaning fluids, and is performed by specialist businesses) or ultrasonic cleaners. The user adds laundry detergent which is sold in liquid or powder form to the wash water.

  • Dishwasher

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    A dishwasher containing clean dishes An open dishwasher A dishwasher is a mechanical device for cleaning dishware and cutlery automatically. Unlike manual dishwashing, which relies largely on physical scrubbing to remove soiling, the mechanical dishwasher cleans by spraying hot water, typically between , at the dishes, with lower temperatures used for delicate items. A mix of water and dishwasher detergent is pumped to one or more rotating spray arms, which blast the dishes with the cleaning mixture. Once the wash is finished, the water is drained, more hot water enters the tub by means of an electro-mechanical solenoid valve, and the rinse cycle begins. After the rinse cycle finishes and the water is drained, the dishes are dried using one of several drying methods. Typically a rinse-aid, a chemical to reduce surface tension of the water, is used to reduce water spots from hard water or other reasons. In addition to domestic units, industrial dishwashers are available for use in commercial establishments such as hotels and restaurants, where a large number of dishes must be cleaned.

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