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  • Urethral syndrome


    Urethral syndrome is characterised by a set of symptoms typically associated with lower urinary tract infection, such as painful urination (dysuria) and frequency. It is a diagnosis of exclusion, made when there is no significant presence of bacteriuria with a conventional pathogen ruling out urinary tract infection, and when cystoscopy shows no inflammation of the bladder, ruling out interstitial cystitis and cystitis cystica. In women, Vaginitis should also be ruled out.

  • Emphysematous cystitis


    Emphysematous cystitis is a rare type of infection of the bladder wall by gas-forming bacteria or fungi. The most frequent offending organism is E. coli. Other gram negative bacteria, including Klebsiella and Proteus are also commonly isolated. Fungi, such as Candida, have also been reported as causative organisms. Citrobacter and Enterococci have also been found to cause Emphysematous cystitis. Although it is a rare type of bladder infection, it is the most common type of all gas-forming bladder infections. The condition is characterized by the formation of air bubbles in and around the bladder wall. The gas found in the bladder consists of nitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide. The disease most commonly affects elderly diabetic and immunocompromised patients. The first case was identified in a post-mortem examination in 1888.

  • Urinary retention


    Urinary retention is an inability to completely empty the bladder. Onset can be sudden or gradual. When of sudden onset, symptoms include an inability to urinate and lower abdominal pain. When of gradual onset, symptoms may include loss of bladder control, mild lower abdominal pain, and a weak urine stream. Those with long term problems are at risk of urinary tract infections. Causes include blockage of the urethra, nerve problems, certain medications, and weak bladder muscles. Blockage can be caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), urethral strictures, bladder stones, a cystocele, constipation, or tumors. Nerve problems can occur from diabetes, trauma, spinal cord problems, stroke, or heavy metal poisoning. Medications that can cause problems include anticholinergics, antihistamines, tricyclic antidepressants, decongestants, cyclobenzaprine, diazepam, NSAIDs, amphetamines, and opioids. Diagnosis is typically based on measuring the amount of urine in the bladder after urinating. Treatment is typically with a catheter either through the urethra or lower abdomen. Other treatments may include medication to decrease the size of the prostate, urethral dilation, a urethral stent, or surgery. Males are more often affected than females. In males over the age of 40 about 6 per 1,000 are affected a year. Among males over 80 this increases 30%.

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