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  • Proximal humerus fracture


    A proximal humerus fracture is a break of the upper part of the bone of the arm (humerus). Symptoms include pain, swelling, and a decreased ability to move the shoulder. Complications may include axillary nerve or axillary artery injury. The cause is generally a fall onto the arm or direct trauma to the arm. Risk factors include osteoporosis and diabetes. Diagnosis is generally based on X-rays or CT scan. It is a type of humerus fracture. A number of classification systems exist. Treatment is generally with an arm sling for a brief period of time followed by specific exercises. This appears appropriate in many cases even when the fragments are separated. Less commonly surgery is recommended. Proximal humerus fractures are common. Older people are most commonly affected. In this age group they are the third most common fractures after hip and Colles fractures. Women are more often affected than men.

  • Subacromial bursitis


    Subacromial bursitis is a condition caused by inflammation of the bursa that separates the superior surface of the supraspinatus tendon (one of the four tendons of the rotator cuff) from the overlying coraco-acromial ligament, acromion, and coracoid (the acromial arch) and from the deep surface of the deltoid muscle. The subacromial bursa helps the motion of the supraspinatus tendon of the rotator cuff in activities such as overhead work. Musculoskeletal complaints are one of the most common reasons for primary care office visits, and rotator cuff disorders are the most common source of shoulder pain. Primary inflammation of the subacromial bursa is relatively rare and may arise from autoimmune inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis; crystal deposition disorders such as gout or pseudogout; calcific loose bodies, and infection. More commonly, subacromial bursitis arises as a result of complex factors, thought to cause shoulder impingement symptoms. These factors are broadly classified as intrinsic (intratendinous) or extrinsic (extratendinous). They are further divided into primary or secondary causes of impingement.

  • Rotator cuff


    Shoulder joint. Posterior view at left. Anterior view at right. 1. Clavicle, 2. Scapula (with 3. Scapular spine, 4. Coracoid process, 5.Acromion), 6. Humerus; Joints: 7. Acromioclavicular (AC), 8. Glenohumeral; 9: Bursa; 10. Rotator cuff (with 11. Supraspinatus, 12. Subscapularis, 13. Infraspinatus, 14. Teres minor), 15. Biceps muscle In anatomy, the rotator cuff is a group of muscles and their tendons that act to stabilize the shoulder. Of the seven scapulohumeral muscles, four make up the rotator cuff. The four muscles are the supraspinatus muscle, the infraspinatus muscle, teres minor muscle, and the subscapularis muscle.

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