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  • Nasal congestion

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    Nasal congestion is the blockage of the nasal passages usually due to membranes lining the nose becoming swollen from inflamed blood vessels. Nasal decongestants target the discomfort directly. These come as nasal sprays, inhalers, and as oral pills. Nasal congestion has many causes and can range from a mild annoyance to a life-threatening condition. Most people prefer to breathe through the nose (historically referred to as "obligate nasal breathers"). Nasal congestion in an infant in the first few months of life can interfere with breastfeeding and cause life-threatening respiratory distress; in older children and adolescents it is often just an annoyance but can cause other difficulties. Nasal congestion can interfere with hearing and speech. Significant congestion may interfere with sleep, cause snoring, and can be associated with sleep apnea. In children, nasal congestion from enlarged adenoids has caused chronic sleep apnea with insufficient oxygen levels and hypoxia, as well as right-sided heart failure.

  • Impetigo

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    Impetigo is a bacterial infection that involves the superficial skin. The most common presentation is yellowish crusts on the face, arms, or legs. Less commonly there may be large blisters which affect the groin or armpits. The lesions may be painful or itchy. Fever is uncommon. It is typically due to either Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pyogenes. Risk factors include attending day care, crowding, poor nutrition, diabetes mellitus, contact sports, and breaks in the skin such as from mosquito bites, eczema, scabies, or herpes. With contact it can spread around or between people. Diagnosis is typically based on the symptoms and appearance. Prevention is by hand washing, avoiding people who are infected, and cleaning injuries. Treatment is typically with antibiotic creams such as mupirocin or fusidic acid. Antibiotics by mouth, such as cephalexin, may be used if large areas are affected. Antibiotic-resistant forms have been found. Impetigo affected about 140 million people (2% of the world population) in 2010. It can occur at any age, but is most common in young children. In some places the condition is also known as "school sores". Without treatment people typically get better within three weeks. Complications may include cellulitis or poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis. The name is from the Latin impetere meaning "attack".

  • Nasal vestibulitis

    serch.it?q=Nasal-vestibulitis

    Nasal vestibulitis is the diffuse dermatitis of nasal vestibule. It is often caused by Staphylococcus aureus. It may be secondary to chronic rhinorrhea, nose picking or viral infections. In acute vestibulitis, the skin is red, swollen and tender. In chronic vestibulitis, induration of vestibular skin and crusting is seen. It is treated by cleaning the nasal vestibule of all crusts with a cotton applicator soaked in hydrogen peroxide. Antibiotic steroid ointment is sometimes helpful. Chronic fissures are treated by cautery.

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