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  • Sheet metal

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    Nirosta stainless steel cover the Chrysler Building Microscopic close-up of mild steel sheet metal.Sheet metal is metal formed by an industrial process into thin, flat pieces. Sheet metal is one of the fundamental forms used in metalworking and it can be cut and bent into a variety of shapes. Countless everyday objects are fabricated from sheet metal. Thicknesses can vary significantly; extremely thin sheets are considered foil or leaf, and pieces thicker than 6 mm (0.25 in) are considered plate steel or "structural steel." Sheet metal is available in flat pieces or coiled strips. The coils are formed by running a continuous sheet of metal through a roll slitter. In most of the world, sheet metal thickness is consistently specified in millimeters. In the US, the thickness of sheet metal is commonly specified by a traditional, non-linear measure known as its gauge. The larger the gauge number, the thinner the metal. Commonly used steel sheet metal ranges from 30 gauge to about 7 gauge. Gauge differs between ferrous (iron based) metals and nonferrous metals such as aluminum or copper. Copper thickness, for example, is measured in ounces; representing the weight of copper contained in an area of one square foot. Parts manufactured from sheet metal must maintain a uniform thickness for ideal results. There are many different metals that can be made into sheet metal, such as aluminium, brass, copper, steel, tin, nickel and titanium. For decorative uses, some important sheet metals include silver, gold, and platinum (platinum sheet metal is also utilized as a catalyst.) Sheet metal is used in automobile and truck (lorry) bodies, airplane fuselages and wings, medical tables, roofs for buildings (architecture) and many other applications. Sheet metal of iron and other materials with high magnetic permeability, also known as laminated steel cores, has applications in transformers and electric machines. Historically, an important use of sheet metal was in plate armor worn by cavalry, and sheet metal continues to have many decorative uses, including in horse tack. Sheet metal workers are also known as "tin bashers" (or "tin knockers"), a name derived from the hammering of panel seams when installing tin roofs.

  • Copper cladding

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    Harvington Parish Church, with its copper-clad spire Copper-clad spire at the Saïd Business School Oxford There are four main techniques used today in the UK and mainland Europe for copper cladding a building: Seamed-cladding (typically 0.7mm thick copper sheet on the facade): max 600mm by 4000mm 'seam centres'. Shingle-cladding (typically made from 0.7mm thick copper sheet): max 600mm by 4000mm 'seam centres'. Slot-in panels (typically made from 1.0mm thick copper sheet): max 350mm wide for 1.0mm, by nominal 4 m length. Cassettes (typically made from 1.0mm up to 1.5mm thick copper sheet): largest-format cladding elements, more subframing is needed: can be 900mm x nominal 4000mm length.When selecting size of a cladding element, take wind-loadings into account, and also consider the standard sizes available of the sheet (or coil) pre-material, to minimise material wastage through off-cuts. This helps to reduce costs. The choice of which system to use depends on the aesthetic effect required, and building geometry can also have an influence on the choice. Copper cladding is very durable, lightweight compared to other materials and techniques, and at the end of the building life is also 100% recyclable. Depending on metal prices, copper may be a very cost-effective cladding and roofing material. With good building design, materials choice and craftsmanship, copper roofing or facade cladding may be cheaper than slates or concrete tiles, especially when one takes into account the lasting colour, durability, maintenance-free and lightweight nature of the cladding. Because the UK code of practice for "hard metal" cladding (as opposed to lead cladding) is quite old - CP143: part 12 (1970) - the major manufacturers have to provide detailed technical advice and information for architects, designers and builders, and cultivate skilled installers with years of experience to draw on. Typically, an installer of hard metal roofing and cladding must put in around 8–10 years on-the-job in order to achieve a respectable experience on a work site.

  • Corrugated galvanised iron

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    Corrugated galvanised iron roofing in Mount Lawley, Western Australia A corrugated iron church (or tin tabernacle) in Kilburn, London Typical corrugated galvanised iron appearance, with visible large flake type patterns. The galvanised sheet is viewed from below and is supported by a piece of angle iron (painted white).Corrugated galvanised iron or steel (colloquially corrugated iron (near universal), wriggly tin (taken from UK military slang), pailing (in Caribbean English), corrugated sheet metal (in North America) and occasionally abbreviated CGI) is a building material composed of sheets of hot-dip galvanised mild steel, cold-rolled to produce a linear corrugated pattern in them. Although it is still popularly called "iron" in the UK, the material used is actually steel (which is iron alloyed with carbon for strength, commonly 0.3% carbon), and only the surviving vintage sheets may actually be made up of 100% iron. The corrugations increase the bending strength of the sheet in the direction perpendicular to the corrugations, but not parallel to them, because the steel must be stretched to bend perpendicular to the corrugations.

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