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  • Active suspension


    Active suspension is a type of automotive suspension that controls the vertical movement of the wheels relative to the chassis or vehicle body with an onboard system, rather than in passive suspension where the movement is being determined entirely by the road surface. Active suspensions can be generally divided into two classes: pure active suspensions, and adaptive/semi-active suspensions. While adaptive suspensions only vary shock absorber firmness to match changing road or dynamic conditions, active suspensions use some type of actuator to raise and lower the chassis independently at each wheel. These technologies allow car manufacturers to achieve a greater degree of ride quality and car handling by keeping the tires perpendicular to the road in corners, allowing better traction (engineering) and control. An onboard computer detects body movement from sensors throughout the vehicle and, using data calculated by opportune control techniques, controls the action of the active and semi-active suspensions. The system virtually eliminates body roll and pitch variation in many driving situations including cornering, accelerating, and braking.

  • Wax motor


    A wax motor is a linear actuator device that converts thermal energy into mechanical energy by exploiting the phase-change behaviour of waxes. During melting, wax typically expands in volume by 5% to 20% . A wide range of waxes can be used in wax motors, ranging from highly refined hydrocarbons to waxes extracted from vegetable matter. Specific examples include paraffin waxes in the straight-chain n-alkanes series. These melt and solidify over a well-defined and narrow temperature range.

  • Hydraulic manifold


    A hydraulic manifold is a manifold that regulates fluid flow between pumps and actuators and other components in a hydraulic system. It is like a switchboard in an electrical circuit because it lets the operator control how much fluid flows between which components of a hydraulic machinery. For example, in a backhoe loader a manifold turns on or shuts off or diverts flow to the telescopic arms of the front bucket and the back bucket. The manifold is connected to the levers in the operator's cabin which the operator uses to achieve the desired manifold behaviour. A manifold is composed of assorted hydraulic valves connected to each other. It is the various combinations of states of these valves that allow complex control behaviour in a manifold.

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