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  • Feline cystitis


    Feline cystitis is associated with feline urological syndrome, feline lower urinary tract disease, and feline idiopathic cystitis. Feline cystitis means "inflammation of the bladder". The term idiopathic translates to unknown cause. This is because the direct cause of feline cystitis is unknown; however, certain behaviors have been known to aid the illness once it has been initiated. It can affect both males and females of any breed of cat. It is more commonly found in females cats; however, when males do exhibit cystitis, it is usually more dangerous. A common nickname for this type of illness is "crystals". This is because tiny crystals or sand like particles form within the urine. This can be treated. If this illness trails on too long then the cat's life may be at risk.

  • Endometriosis


    Endometriosis is a condition in which cells similar to those in the endometrium, the layer of tissue that normally covers the inside of the uterus, grow outside of it. Most often this is on the ovaries, Fallopian tubes, and tissue around the uterus and ovaries; however, in rare cases it may also occur in other parts of the body. The main symptoms are pelvic pain and infertility. Nearly half of those affected have chronic pelvic pain, while in 70% pain occurs during menstruation. Pain during sexual intercourse is also common. Infertility occurs in up to half of women affected. Less common symptoms include urinary or bowel symptoms. About 25% of women have no symptoms. Endometriosis can have both social and psychological effects. The cause is not entirely clear. Risk factors include having a family history of the condition. The areas of endometriosis bleed each month, resulting in inflammation and scarring. The growths due to endometriosis are not cancer. Diagnosis is usually based on symptoms in combination with medical imaging, however, biopsy is the surest method of diagnosis. Other causes of similar symptoms include pelvic inflammatory disease, irritable bowel syndrome, interstitial cystitis, and fibromyalgia. Tentative evidence suggests that the use of combined oral contraceptives reduces the risk of endometriosis. Exercise and avoiding large amounts of alcohol may also be preventive. There is no cure for endometriosis but a number of treatments may improve symptoms. This may include pain medication, hormonal treatments or surgery. The recommended pain medication is usually a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), such as naproxen. Taking the active component of the birth control pill continuously or using an intrauterine device with progestogen may also be useful. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist may improve the ability of those who are infertile to get pregnant. Surgical removal of endometriosis may be used to treat those whose symptoms are not manageable with other treatments. One estimate is that 10.8 million people are affected globally . Other sources estimate about 6–10% of women are affected. Endometriosis is most common in those in their thirties and forties; however, it can begin in girls as early as eight years old. It results in few deaths. Endometriosis was first determined to be a separate condition in the 1920s. Before that time, endometriosis and adenomyosis were considered together. It is unclear who first described the disease.

  • Interstitial cystitis


    Interstitial cystitis (IC), also known as bladder pain syndrome (BPS), is a type of chronic pain that affects the bladder. Symptoms include feeling the need to urinate right away, needing to urinate often, and pain with sex. IC/BPS is associated with depression and lower quality of life. Many of those affected also have irritable bowel syndrome and fibromyalgia. The cause of IC/BPS is unknown. While it can, it does not typically run in a family. The diagnosis is usually based on the symptoms after ruling out other conditions. Typically the urine culture is negative. Ulceration or inflammation may be seen on cystoscopy. Other conditions which can produce similar symptoms include urinary tract infection (UTI), overactive bladder, sexually transmitted infections, endometriosis, bladder cancer, and prostatitis. There is no cure for interstitial cystitis. Treatments that may improve symptoms include lifestyle changes, medications, or procedures. Lifestyle changes may include stopping smoking and reducing stress. Medications may include ibuprofen, pentosan polysulfate, or amitriptyline. Procedures may include bladder distention, nerve stimulation, or surgery. Pelvic floor exercises and long term antibiotics are not recommended. In the United States and Europe it is estimated that around 0.5% of people are affected. Women are affected about five times as often as men. Onset is typically in middle age. The term "interstitial cystitis" first came into use in 1887.

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