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  • Irritable bowel syndrome

    serch.it?q=Irritable-bowel-syndrome

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a group of symptoms—including abdominal pain and changes in the pattern of bowel movements without any evidence of underlying damage. These symptoms occur over a long time, often years. It has been classified into four main types depending on whether diarrhea is common, constipation is common, both are common, or neither occurs very often (IBS-D, IBS-C, IBS-M, or IBS-U respectively). IBS negatively affects quality of life and may result in missed school or work. Disorders such as anxiety, major depression, and chronic fatigue syndrome are common among people with IBS. The causes of IBS are not clear. Theories include combinations of gut–brain axis problems, gut motility disorders, pain sensitivity, infections including small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, neurotransmitters, genetic factors, and food sensitivity. Onset may be triggered by an intestinal infection, or stressful life event. IBS is a functional gastrointestinal disorder. Diagnosis is based on signs and symptoms in the absence of worrisome features. Worrisome features include onset at greater than 50 years of age, weight loss, blood in the stool, or a family history of inflammatory bowel disease. Other conditions that may present similarly include celiac disease, microscopic colitis, inflammatory bowel disease, bile acid malabsorption, and colon cancer. There is no known cure for IBS. Treatment is carried out to improve symptoms. This may include dietary changes, medication, probiotics, and counseling. Dietary measures include increasing soluble fiber intake, a gluten-free diet, or a short-term diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs). The medication loperamide may be used to help with diarrhea while laxatives may be used to help with constipation. Antidepressants may improve overall symptoms and pain. Patient education and a good doctor–patient relationship are an important part of care. About 10 to 15% of people in the developed world are believed to be affected by IBS. It is more common in South America and less common in Southeast Asia. It is twice as common in women as men and typically occurs before age 45. The condition appears to become less common with age. IBS does not affect life expectancy or lead to other serious diseases. The first description of the condition was in 1820 while the current term "irritable bowel syndrome" came into use in 1944.

  • Biological therapy for inflammatory bowel disease

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    TNF-α monoclonal antibody infliximab is a major biological therapy for inflammatory bowel diseaseBiological therapy, the use of medications called biopharmaceuticals or biologics that are tailored to specifically target an immune or genetic mediator of disease, plays a major role in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Even for diseases of unknown cause, molecules that are involved in the disease process have been identified, and can be targeted for biological therapy. Many of these molecules, which are mainly cytokines, are directly involved in the immune system. Biological therapy has found a niche in the management of cancer, autoimmune diseases, and diseases of unknown cause that result in symptoms due to immune related mechanisms. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), a collection of systemic diseases involving inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, includes two (or three) diseases of unknown causation: ulcerative colitis, which affects only the large bowel; Crohn's disease, which can affect the entire gastrointestinal tract; and indeterminate colitis, which consists of large bowel inflammation that shows elements of both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.

  • Crohn's disease

    serch.it?q=Crohn's-disease

    Crohn's disease is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus. Signs and symptoms often include abdominal pain, diarrhea (which may be bloody if inflammation is severe), fever, and weight loss. Other complications may occur outside the gastrointestinal tract and include anemia, skin rashes, arthritis, inflammation of the eye, and tiredness. The skin rashes may be due to infections as well as pyoderma gangrenosum or erythema nodosum. Bowel obstruction may occur as a complication of chronic inflammation, and those with the disease are at greater risk of bowel cancer. While the cause of Crohn's disease is unknown, it is believed to be due to a combination of environmental, immune, and bacterial factors in genetically susceptible individuals. It results in a chronic inflammatory disorder, in which the body's immune system attacks the gastrointestinal tract possibly directed at microbial antigens. While Crohn's is an immune-related disease, it does not appear to be an autoimmune disease (in that the immune system is not being triggered by the body itself).

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