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  • Trichuris vulpis

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    Trichuris vulpis is a whipworm that lives in the large intestine of canines in its adult stages. Out of different types of worms, Trichuris vulpis is one of the smaller worms with a size ranging from 30–50 mm in length. As the name suggests, the worm has a whip-like shape with distinct features including a small, narrow anterior head, which is the digestive part of the worm, and a larger posterior tail, which is the reproductive part of the worm. Eggs from T. vulpis are oval shaped with bipolar plugs and contain a thick outer shell. Their sizes range from 72–90 μm in length and 32–40 μm in width. Because of their thick outer shell, T. vulpis eggs are very resistant to environmental extremes such as freezing or hot temperatures, thus allowing for their long viability in the outside world.

  • Hookworm infection

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    Hookworm infection is an infection by a type of intestinal parasite known as a hookworm. Initially, itching and a rash may occur at the site of infection. Those only affected by a few worms may show no symptoms. Those infected by many worms may experience abdominal pain, diarrhea, weight loss, and tiredness. The mental and physical development of children may be affected. Anemia may result. Two common hookworm infections in humans are ancylostomiasis and necatoriasis, caused by the species Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus respectively. Hookworm eggs are deposited in the stools of infected people. If these end up in the environment, they can hatch into larvae (immature worms), which can then penetrate the skin. One type can also be spread through contaminated food. Risk factors include walking barefoot in warm climates, where sanitation is poor. Diagnosis is by examination of a stool sample with a microscope. The disease can be prevented on an individual level by not walking barefoot in areas where the disease is common. At a population level, decreasing outdoor defecation, not using raw feces as fertilizer, and mass deworming is effective. Treatment is typically with the medications albendazole or mebendazole for one to three days. Iron supplements may be needed in those with anemia. Hookworms infected about 428 million people in 2015. Heavy infections can occur in both children and adults, but are less common in adults. They are rarely fatal. Hookworm infection is a soil-transmitted helminthiasis and classified as a neglected tropical disease.

  • Toxocara canis

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    Toxocara canis (also known as dog roundworm) is worldwide-distributed helminth parasite of dogs and other canids. Toxocara canis is gonochoristic, adult worms measure from 9 to 18 cm, are yellow-white in color, and occur in the intestine of the definitive host. In adult dogs, the infection is usually asymptomatic. By contrast, massive infection with Toxocara canis can be fatal in puppies. As paratenic hosts, a number of vertebrates, including humans, and some invertebrates can become infected. Humans are infected, like other paratenic hosts, by ingestion of embryonated T. canis eggs. The disease (called Toxocariasis) caused by migrating T. canis larvae (toxocariasis) results in two syndromes: visceralis larva migrans and ocularis larva migrans. Owing to transmission of the infection from the mother to her puppies, preventive anthelmintic treatment of newborn puppies is strongly recommended. Several antihelmintic drugs are effective against adult worms, for example pyrantel, fenbendazole, selamectin.

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