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  • Palatine tonsil

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    Palatine tonsils, commonly called the tonsils and occasionally called the faucial tonsils, are tonsils located on the left and right sides at the back of the throat, which can often be seen as flesh-colored, pinkish lumps. Tonsils only present as "white lumps" if they are inflamed or infected with symptoms of exudates (pus drainage) and severe swelling. Tonsillitis is an inflammation of the tonsils and will often, but not necessarily, cause a sore throat and fever. In chronic cases tonsillectomy may be indicated.

  • Tonsillectomy

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    Tonsillectomy is a surgical procedure in which both palatine tonsils (hereafter called "tonsils") are removed from a recess in the side of the pharynx called the tonsillar fossa. The procedure is mainly performed for recurrent or chronic sore throat (sometimes labelled tonsillitis) and for sleep-disordered breathing including obstructive sleep apnea and snoring. It is also carried out more rarely for peritonsillar abscess, Periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and adenitis (PFAPA), Guttate psoriasis, nasal airway obstruction, tonsil cancer and diphtheria carrier state. For children, tonsillectomy is usually combined with an adenoidectomy, which is the removal of the adenoid (also known as the "pharyngeal tonsil" or "nasopharyngeal tonsil"). The combination of these two procedures is called an "adenotonsillectomy" or simply "T&A". Adenoidectomy is uncommon in adults in whom the adenoid is much smaller than in children and rarely causes problems. Although tonsillectomy is nowadays performed much less frequently than in the 1950s through 1970s, it remains a common surgical procedure in children in the United States and many other western countries.

  • Tonsillolith

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    Tonsilloliths, also known as tonsil stones, are soft aggregates of bacterial and cellular debris that form in the tonsillar crypts, the crevices of the tonsils. While they occur most commonly in the palatine tonsils, they may also occur in the lingual tonsils. Tonsil stones are common. Tonsilloliths have been recorded weighing from 0.3 g to 42 g. Protruding tonsilloliths may feel like foreign objects lodged in the tonsil crypt. They may be a nuisance and difficult to remove, but are usually not harmful. They are one of the causes of bad breath and always give off a putrid smell.

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