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  • Vagotomy


    A vagotomy is a surgical procedure that involves removing part of the vagus nerve.

  • Ondansetron


    Ondansetron, marketed under the brand name Zofran, is a medication used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgery. It is also useful in gastroenteritis. It has little effect on vomiting caused by motion sickness. It can be given by mouth, or by injection into a muscle or into a vein. Common side effects include diarrhea, constipation, headache, sleepiness, and itchiness. Serious side effects include QT prolongation and severe allergic reaction. It appears to be safe during pregnancy but has not been well studied in this group. It is a serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist. It does not have any effect on dopamine receptors or muscarinic receptors. Ondansetron was first used medically in 1990. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. It is available as a generic medication. The wholesale cost of the injectable form in the developing world is about 0.10 to 0.76 per dose. In the United States it costs about 1.37 per tablet.

  • Chest pain


    Chest pain is pain in any region of the chest. Chest pain may be a symptom of a number of serious disorders and is, in general, considered a medical emergency. Chest pain can be differentiated into heart-related and non heart related chest pain. Cardiac chest pain is called angina pectoris. Some causes of noncardiac chest pain include gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, or lung issues. Even though chest pain may not be related to a heart problem, noncardiac chest pain can still be due to significant disease. Chest pain can present with different types of pain and associated symptoms which may vary with a person's age, sex, and previous medical conditions. Determining the cause of chest pain is through review of a person's medical history, a physical exam, and other medical tests. Management of chest pain is based on the underlying cause. Chest pain is a common presenting problem: In the United States, an estimated 6-8 million people per year present to the emergency department with chest pain. An estimated 50-70% of patients presenting with chest pain in the emergency department will be placed in an observation unit or admitted to the hospital. 2 million people are admitted annually for workup of acute coronary syndrome. Approximately 8 billion dollars are used annually to evaluate complaints of chest pain. Children with chest pain account for 0.3% to 0.6% of pediatric emergency department visits.

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