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  • Scramble for Africa

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    European colonial powers in 1913, shown along with current national boundaries. The Scramble for Africa was the occupation, division, and colonization of African territory by European powers during the period of New Imperialism, between 1881 and 1914. It is also called the Partition of Africa and by some the Conquest of Africa. In 1870, only 10 percent of Africa was under formal European control; by 1914 it had increased to almost 90 percent of the continent, with only Ethiopia (Abyssinia) and Liberia still being independent. There were multiple motivations including the quest for national prestige, tensions between pairs of European powers, religious missionary zeal and internal African native politics. The Berlin Conference of 1884, which regulated European colonisation and trade in Africa, is usually referred to as the ultimate point of the scramble for Africa. Consequent to the political and economic rivalries among the European empires in the last quarter of the 19th century, the partitioning, or splitting up of Africa was how the Europeans avoided warring amongst themselves over Africa.

  • Scrambling

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    Scrambling on Crib Goch, Snowdonia, Wales Part of the Crib Goch ridge, Wales. An easy section of the path runs over the grassy saddle.Scrambling (also known as alpine scrambling) is "a walk up steep terrain involving the use of one's hands". It is an ambiguous term that lies somewhere between hiking, hillwalking, mountaineering, and rock climbing. Canyoning often involves scrambling. Alpine scrambling is scrambling in high mountains like the Alps and the Rockies of North America, and may not follow a defined or waymarked path. The Mountaineers climbing organization defines alpine scrambling as follows: Alpine Scrambles are off-trail trips, often on snow or rock, with a 'non-technical' summit as a destination. A non-technical summit is one that is reached without the need for certain types of climbing equipment (body harness, rope, protection hardware, etc), and not involving travel on extremely steep slopes or on glaciers. However, this can mean negotiating lower angle rock, traveling through talus and scree, crossing streams, fighting one's way through dense brush, and walking on snow-covered slopes.

  • Scramble (slave auction)

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    A scramble was an early form of slave auction that took place at the height of the Atlantic slave trade in the British colonies of the West Indies in the eighteenth century.

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