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  • Storage water heater

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    Diagram showing a natural gas storage water heater A storage water heater, or a hot water system (HWS), is a domestic water heating appliance that uses a hot water storage tank to maximize heating capacity and provide instantaneous delivery of hot water. Conventional storage water heaters use a variety of fuels, including natural gas, propane, fuel oil, and electricity. Less conventional water heating technologies, such as heat pump water heaters and solar water heaters, can also be categorized as storage water heaters.

  • Energy factor

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    An energy factor is a metric used in the United States to compare the energy conversion efficiency of residential appliances and equipment. The energy factor is currently used for rating the efficiency of water heaters, dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers. The term is used by the United States Department of Energy to develop and enforce minimum energy conservation standards under the Energy Conservation Program. The higher the energy factor, the more efficient the appliance should be. Although the term energy factor is used to compare the relative efficiency of these appliances, the metric is defined differently for all four appliance categories. The energy factor is expressed in terms of site energy, which excludes losses through energy conversion. All of these efficiency metrics are defined by Department of Energy test procedures.

  • Tankless water heating

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    The inside of a hydraulically operated two-stage tankless heater, heated by single-phase electric power. The copper tank contains heating elements with 18kW maximum power.Tankless water heaters—also called instantaneous, continuous flow, inline, flash, on-demand, or instant-on water heaters are water heaters that instantly heat water as it flows through the device, and do not retain any water internally except for what is in the heat exchanger coil. Copper heat exchangers are preferred in these units because of their high thermal conductivity and ease of fabrication. Tankless heaters may be installed throughout a household at more than one point-of-use (POU), far from a central water heater, or larger centralized models may still be used to provide all the hot water requirements for an entire house. The main advantages of tankless water heaters are a plentiful continuous flow of hot water (as compared to a limited flow of continuously heated hot water from conventional tank water heaters), and potential energy savings under some conditions. The main disadvantage of these systems are their high initial costs (equipment and installation).

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