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  • Ingratiation

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    Ingratiation is a psychological technique in which an individual attempts to influence another person by becoming more likeable to their target. This term was coined by social psychologist Edward E. Jones, who further defined ingratiation as "a class of strategic behaviors illicitly designed to influence a particular other person concerning the attractiveness of one's personal qualities." Ingratiation research has identified some specific tactics of employing ingratiation: Complimentary Other-Enhancement: the act of using compliments or flattery to improve the esteem of another individual. Conformity in Opinion, Judgment, and Behavior: altering the expression of one's personal opinions to match the opinion(s) of another individual. Self-Presentation or Self-Promotion: explicit presentation of an individual's own characteristics, typically done in a favorable manner. Rendering Favors: Performing helpful requests for another individual. Modesty: Moderating the estimation of one's own abilities, sometimes seen as self-deprecation. Expression of Humour: any event shared by an individual with the target individual that is intended to be amusing.

  • Aberfan disaster

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    The Aberfan disaster was the catastrophic collapse of a colliery spoil tip at around 9:15 am on 21 October 1966. The tip had been created on a mountain slope above the Welsh village of Aberfan, near Merthyr Tydfil and overlaid a natural spring. A period of heavy rain led to a build-up of water within the tip which caused it to suddenly slide downhill as a slurry, killing 116 children and 28 adults as it engulfed the local junior school and other buildings. The tip was the responsibility of the National Coal Board (NCB), and the subsequent inquiry placed the blame for the disaster on the organisation and nine named employees. There were seven spoil tips on the slopes above Aberfan; Tip 7—the one that slipped onto the village—was begun in 1958 and, at the time of the disaster, was high. In contravention of the NCB's official procedures, the tip was partly based on ground from which water springs emerged. After three weeks of heavy rain the tip was saturated and approximately of spoil slipped down the side of the hill and onto the Pantglas area of the village.

  • Situation, task, action, result

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    The situation, task, action, result (STAR) format is a used by interviewers to gather all the relevant information about a specific capability that the job requires. Situation: The interviewer wants you to present a recent challenge and situation in which you found yourself. Task: What were you required to achieve? The interviewer will be looking to see what you were trying to achieve from the situation. Some performance development methods use “Target” rather than “Task”. Job interview candidates who describe a “Target” they set themselves instead of an externally imposed “Task” emphasize their own intrinsic motivation to perform and to develop their performance. Action: What did you do? The interviewer will be looking for information on what you did, why you did it and what the alternatives were. Results: What was the outcome of your actions? What did you achieve through your actions and did you meet your objectives? What did you learn from this experience and have you used this learning since?The STAR technique is similar to the SOARA technique.

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